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Table 1:
Overview of test-problem framework components
Panel A: Decomposition of decision variables
Upper-level variablesLower-level variables
Vector Purpose Vector Purpose 
xu1 Complexity on upper level xl1 Complexity on lower level 
xu2 Interaction with lower level xl2 Interaction with upper level 
Panel B: Decomposition of objective functions 
Upper-level objective function Lower-level objective function 
Component Purpose Component Purpose 
F1(xu1Difficulty in convergence f1(xu1, xu2Functional dependence 
f2(xl1Conflict/cooperation f2(xl1Difficulty in convergence 
F3(xu2, xl2Difficulty in interaction F3(xu2, xl2Difficulty in interaction 
Panel A: Decomposition of decision variables
Upper-level variablesLower-level variables
Vector Purpose Vector Purpose 
xu1 Complexity on upper level xl1 Complexity on lower level 
xu2 Interaction with lower level xl2 Interaction with upper level 
Panel B: Decomposition of objective functions 
Upper-level objective function Lower-level objective function 
Component Purpose Component Purpose 
F1(xu1Difficulty in convergence f1(xu1, xu2Functional dependence 
f2(xl1Conflict/cooperation f2(xl1Difficulty in convergence 
F3(xu2, xl2Difficulty in interaction F3(xu2, xl2Difficulty in interaction 
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