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Table 7. 
Percent Contribution of Circumstance Variables to Inequality of Opportunity for Secondary Education, 12–17 Years
CountrySurvey YearGenderArea of Residence (urban/rural)Per Capita Household ExpenditureAge of Household HeadGender of Household HeadEducation Level of Household HeadHousehold Size
Indonesia 2009 0.2* 11.6* 69.1* 0.4* 1.5* 17.2* 0.1 
Philippines 2002 6.4* 2.4* 90.7* 0.3* –0.5* 0.0 0.6 
Viet Nam 2008 4.0* 6.6* 65.7* 1.2 –0.4 11.0* 12.0* 
Bangladesh 2000 20.8* -2.6* 76.9* –0.4 2.5* 0.5 2.5* 
Bhutan 2007 3.4* 42.4* 54.7* 4.1* 1.4* –4.5* –1.6 
Sri Lanka 2009–2010 1.3* 0.8* 96.0* 0.6 0.7 0.0 0.6 
Pakistan 2007–2008 9.5* 5.2* 61.0* 0.2 1.2* 24.0* –1.1* 
CountrySurvey YearGenderArea of Residence (urban/rural)Per Capita Household ExpenditureAge of Household HeadGender of Household HeadEducation Level of Household HeadHousehold Size
Indonesia 2009 0.2* 11.6* 69.1* 0.4* 1.5* 17.2* 0.1 
Philippines 2002 6.4* 2.4* 90.7* 0.3* –0.5* 0.0 0.6 
Viet Nam 2008 4.0* 6.6* 65.7* 1.2 –0.4 11.0* 12.0* 
Bangladesh 2000 20.8* -2.6* 76.9* –0.4 2.5* 0.5 2.5* 
Bhutan 2007 3.4* 42.4* 54.7* 4.1* 1.4* –4.5* –1.6 
Sri Lanka 2009–2010 1.3* 0.8* 96.0* 0.6 0.7 0.0 0.6 
Pakistan 2007–2008 9.5* 5.2* 61.0* 0.2 1.2* 24.0* –1.1* 

*= estimated coefficient found to be statistically significant at the 5% level in the logit regression model of the probability of school attendance among the secondary-school-age children, 12–17 years.

Source: Author's calculations based on household surveys.

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