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Table 8. 
Percent Contribution of Circumstance Variables to Inequality of Opportunity for Access to Safe Water
CountrySurvey YearArea of Residence (urban/rural)Per Capita Household ExpenditureAge of Household HeadGender of Household HeadEducation Level of Household HeadHousehold Size
Indonesia 2009 67.7* 29.5* 0.7* 0.3* 0.5* 1.3* 
Philippines 2002 8.5* 89.0* 2.6* 0.6* 0.5* –1.2* 
Viet Nam 2008 82.8* 11.9* 2.5* 2.6* 0.1 0.1* 
Bangladesh 2000 82.0* 17.5* 0.4* -0.0* 0.1* 0.1 
Bhutan 2007 55.6* 32.4* 0.5 –0.2* 13.8* –2.1* 
Sri Lanka 2009–2010 89.0* 9.1* 0.2* 0.2* 0.0* 1.5* 
Pakistan 2007–2008 70.8* 19.0* –0.0* 0.0* 10.2* –0.1 
CountrySurvey YearArea of Residence (urban/rural)Per Capita Household ExpenditureAge of Household HeadGender of Household HeadEducation Level of Household HeadHousehold Size
Indonesia 2009 67.7* 29.5* 0.7* 0.3* 0.5* 1.3* 
Philippines 2002 8.5* 89.0* 2.6* 0.6* 0.5* –1.2* 
Viet Nam 2008 82.8* 11.9* 2.5* 2.6* 0.1 0.1* 
Bangladesh 2000 82.0* 17.5* 0.4* -0.0* 0.1* 0.1 
Bhutan 2007 55.6* 32.4* 0.5 –0.2* 13.8* –2.1* 
Sri Lanka 2009–2010 89.0* 9.1* 0.2* 0.2* 0.0* 1.5* 
Pakistan 2007–2008 70.8* 19.0* –0.0* 0.0* 10.2* –0.1 

*= estimated coefficient found to be statistically significant at the 5% level in the logit regression model of the probability of having access to safe water.

Source: Author's calculations based on household surveys.

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