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Table 9. 
Percent Contribution of Circumstance Variables to Inequality of Opportunity for Access to Sanitation
CountrySurvey YearArea of Residence (urban/rural)Per Capita Household ExpenditureAge of Household HeadGender of Household HeadEducation Level of Household HeadHousehold Size
Indonesia 2009 79.6* 17.0* 0.6* 0.1* 2.7* 0.1* 
Philippines 2002 2.5* 97.2* 1.1* 0.1* 0.7* –1.5* 
Viet Nam 2008 29.0* 67.0* 0.8* 1.5* 2.3* –0.6* 
Bangladesh 2000 20.4* 71.0* 1.8* 0.2* 0.0 6.6* 
Bhutan 2007 43.7* 33.7* 1.7* 1.4* 21.0* –1.6* 
Sri Lanka 2009–2010 –0.3* 98.9* 2.4* –0.0 0.0* –0.9* 
Pakistan 2007–2008 38.7* 50.6* 0.6* 0.8* 10.1* –0.8* 
CountrySurvey YearArea of Residence (urban/rural)Per Capita Household ExpenditureAge of Household HeadGender of Household HeadEducation Level of Household HeadHousehold Size
Indonesia 2009 79.6* 17.0* 0.6* 0.1* 2.7* 0.1* 
Philippines 2002 2.5* 97.2* 1.1* 0.1* 0.7* –1.5* 
Viet Nam 2008 29.0* 67.0* 0.8* 1.5* 2.3* –0.6* 
Bangladesh 2000 20.4* 71.0* 1.8* 0.2* 0.0 6.6* 
Bhutan 2007 43.7* 33.7* 1.7* 1.4* 21.0* –1.6* 
Sri Lanka 2009–2010 –0.3* 98.9* 2.4* –0.0 0.0* –0.9* 
Pakistan 2007–2008 38.7* 50.6* 0.6* 0.8* 10.1* –0.8* 

*= estimated coefficient found to be statistically significant at 5% level in the logit regression model of the probability of having access to sanitation.

Source: Author's calculations based on household surveys.

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