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Table 10. 
Percent Contribution of Circumstance Variables to Inequality of Opportunity for Access to Electricity
CountrySurvey YearArea of Residence (urban/rural)Per Capita Household ExpenditureAge of Household HeadGender of Household HeadEducation Level of Household HeadHousehold Size
Indonesia 2009 86.5* 2.0* 6.0* –0.3* 1.4* 4.5* 
Philippines 2002 7.0* 93.6* 0.2* 0.2* 0.5* –1.4* 
Viet Nam 2008 15.3* 72.2* 2.8* 3.0* 2.7* 4.1* 
Bangladesh 2000 35.1* 63.1* 0.2* 0.1* 0.0 1.7* 
Bhutan 2007 53.3* 39.4* -0.4* -0.1* 9.1* –1.3* 
Sri Lanka 2009–2010 23.8* 72.6* 1.6* 0.2* 0.0* 1.9* 
Pakistan 2007–2008 29.8* 58.6* 0.1* 1.3* 9.9* 0.3* 
CountrySurvey YearArea of Residence (urban/rural)Per Capita Household ExpenditureAge of Household HeadGender of Household HeadEducation Level of Household HeadHousehold Size
Indonesia 2009 86.5* 2.0* 6.0* –0.3* 1.4* 4.5* 
Philippines 2002 7.0* 93.6* 0.2* 0.2* 0.5* –1.4* 
Viet Nam 2008 15.3* 72.2* 2.8* 3.0* 2.7* 4.1* 
Bangladesh 2000 35.1* 63.1* 0.2* 0.1* 0.0 1.7* 
Bhutan 2007 53.3* 39.4* -0.4* -0.1* 9.1* –1.3* 
Sri Lanka 2009–2010 23.8* 72.6* 1.6* 0.2* 0.0* 1.9* 
Pakistan 2007–2008 29.8* 58.6* 0.1* 1.3* 9.9* 0.3* 

*= estimated coefficient found to be statistically significant at the 5% level in the logit regression model of the probability of having access to electricity.

Source: Author's calculations based on household surveys.

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