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Table 4. 
Mean Shares of All (Paid and Unpaid) Workers with High Education in Sample MNEs and MNE–Local Differentials
MNEs (% of all workers)MNE–Local Ratios
Industry2000200120022003200420002001200220032004
17 sample industries 16 17 18 19 19 1.611 1.879 1.901 1.828 1.706 
  combined           
Food and beverages 17 17 19 19 19 2.113 2.435 2.658 2.563 2.370 
Textiles 10 0.933 0.928 0.824 0.914 0.889 
Apparel 1.068 1.271 1.030 0.956 0.629 
Wood products 1.426 1.488 1.488 1.201 1.143 
Paper products 16 15 17 18 16 1.312 1.424 1.442 1.368 1.225 
Chemicals 28 29 31 32 34 1.517 1.677 1.626 1.582 1.557 
Rubber products 11 10 10 10 1.200 1.283 1.129 1.074 1.139 
Plastics 14 16 18 17 15 1.292 1.593 1.625 1.545 1.209 
Non-metallic mineral 19 19 19 25 21 2.000 2.288 2.203 2.797 2.029 
  products           
Basic metals 18 17 18 20 18 1.268 1.337 1.426 1.464 1.269 
Fabricated metals 16 16 17 18 18 1.258 1.578 1.762 1.694 1.643 
General machinery 26 28 31 35 31 1.996 2.207 2.086 2.448 1.930 
Office, computing, and 16 15 16 19 21 0.975 0.712 0.820 0.695 0.731 
  precision machinery           
Electrical machinery 14 17 18 17 17 0.973 1.288 1.233 0.972 0.969 
Radio, TV, and 16 19 18 18 20 1.048 1.234 1.026 0.983 0.953 
  communication           
  machinery           
Motor vehicles 15 14 19 20 18 1.182 1.124 1.340 1.548 1.375 
Furniture 0.986 0.911 1.236 1.379 1.152 
MNEs (% of all workers)MNE–Local Ratios
Industry2000200120022003200420002001200220032004
17 sample industries 16 17 18 19 19 1.611 1.879 1.901 1.828 1.706 
  combined           
Food and beverages 17 17 19 19 19 2.113 2.435 2.658 2.563 2.370 
Textiles 10 0.933 0.928 0.824 0.914 0.889 
Apparel 1.068 1.271 1.030 0.956 0.629 
Wood products 1.426 1.488 1.488 1.201 1.143 
Paper products 16 15 17 18 16 1.312 1.424 1.442 1.368 1.225 
Chemicals 28 29 31 32 34 1.517 1.677 1.626 1.582 1.557 
Rubber products 11 10 10 10 1.200 1.283 1.129 1.074 1.139 
Plastics 14 16 18 17 15 1.292 1.593 1.625 1.545 1.209 
Non-metallic mineral 19 19 19 25 21 2.000 2.288 2.203 2.797 2.029 
  products           
Basic metals 18 17 18 20 18 1.268 1.337 1.426 1.464 1.269 
Fabricated metals 16 16 17 18 18 1.258 1.578 1.762 1.694 1.643 
General machinery 26 28 31 35 31 1.996 2.207 2.086 2.448 1.930 
Office, computing, and 16 15 16 19 21 0.975 0.712 0.820 0.695 0.731 
  precision machinery           
Electrical machinery 14 17 18 17 17 0.973 1.288 1.233 0.972 0.969 
Radio, TV, and 16 19 18 18 20 1.048 1.234 1.026 0.983 0.953 
  communication           
  machinery           
Motor vehicles 15 14 19 20 18 1.182 1.124 1.340 1.548 1.375 
Furniture 0.986 0.911 1.236 1.379 1.152 

Note: Plants with viable data are those with positive paid workers, output, worker compensation, and fixed assets. Excluded industries are tobacco, leather and footwear, publishing, petroleum products, other transport equipment, miscellaneous manufacturing, and recycling. High education is defined as education beyond the Malaysian Education Certificate (SPM), an exam taken by all students in the fifth year of secondary school (i.e., some level of vocational school, college, university, or graduate school).

Source: Author's compilations from micro data underlying Department of Statistics (2002, various years).

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