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Table 4. 
Summary Statistics
Worker ConcernsManager Perceptions of Worker Concerns
VariableObs.MeanStd. Dev.Obs.MeanStd. Dev.
Wage concern index 5,790 0.961 0.129 305 0.874 0.244 
Bonus concern index 5,874 0.652 0.123 305 0.948 0.161 
In-kind compensation and benefits index 5,864 0.667 0.114 305 305 0.652 
Pay transparency index 5,878 0.845 0.101 305 305 0.667 
Training index 5,855 0.304 0.280 305 0.739 0.164 
Gender discrimination index 5,863 0.939 0.165 305 305 0.123 
Forced labor index 5,880 0.988 0.049 305 0.972 0.111 
CBA index 5,627 0.909 0.288 305 0.814 0.177 
Chemical hazard index 5,860 0.982 0.078 305 305 0.109 
Health services index 5,881 0.672 0.120 305 0.518 0.243 
Equipment safety index 5,872 0.991 0.051 305 305 0.054 
Environment index 5,877 0.971 0.080 305 0.916 0.152 
Temporary to permanent worker index 5,323 0.178 0.168 305 305 0.168 
Method of pay index 5,880 0.493 0.064 305 0.943 0.163 
Worker ConcernsManager Perceptions of Worker Concerns
VariableObs.MeanStd. Dev.Obs.MeanStd. Dev.
Wage concern index 5,790 0.961 0.129 305 0.874 0.244 
Bonus concern index 5,874 0.652 0.123 305 0.948 0.161 
In-kind compensation and benefits index 5,864 0.667 0.114 305 305 0.652 
Pay transparency index 5,878 0.845 0.101 305 305 0.667 
Training index 5,855 0.304 0.280 305 0.739 0.164 
Gender discrimination index 5,863 0.939 0.165 305 305 0.123 
Forced labor index 5,880 0.988 0.049 305 0.972 0.111 
CBA index 5,627 0.909 0.288 305 0.814 0.177 
Chemical hazard index 5,860 0.982 0.078 305 305 0.109 
Health services index 5,881 0.672 0.120 305 0.518 0.243 
Equipment safety index 5,872 0.991 0.051 305 305 0.054 
Environment index 5,877 0.971 0.080 305 0.916 0.152 
Temporary to permanent worker index 5,323 0.178 0.168 305 305 0.168 
Method of pay index 5,880 0.493 0.064 305 0.943 0.163 

CBA = collective bargaining agreement.

Source: Authors’ calculations.

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