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Table 1. 
Mean Values by Clusters
ManufacturingServices
VariableHigh Technology and High Product DifferentiationMedium Technology and High Product DifferentiationLow Technology and Low Product DifferentiationHigh Technology and High Product DifferentiationMedium Technology and High Product Differentiation
Number of industries 83 67 53 25 52 
R&D expenditure-to-sales ratio (%) 0.65 0.30 0.00 0.39 0.00 
Royalty payments abroad-to-sales ratio (%) 0.35 0.04 0.00 0.10 0.05 
Capital goods imports-to-sales ratio (%) 1.79 2.54 1.19 2.32 3.50 
Advertisement expenditure-to-sales ratio (%) 1.50 2.17 0.91 0.98 3.02 
ManufacturingServices
VariableHigh Technology and High Product DifferentiationMedium Technology and High Product DifferentiationLow Technology and Low Product DifferentiationHigh Technology and High Product DifferentiationMedium Technology and High Product Differentiation
Number of industries 83 67 53 25 52 
R&D expenditure-to-sales ratio (%) 0.65 0.30 0.00 0.39 0.00 
Royalty payments abroad-to-sales ratio (%) 0.35 0.04 0.00 0.10 0.05 
Capital goods imports-to-sales ratio (%) 1.79 2.54 1.19 2.32 3.50 
Advertisement expenditure-to-sales ratio (%) 1.50 2.17 0.91 0.98 3.02 

R&D = research and development.

Source: Author's calculations.

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