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Table 1. 
County to County-Level City Minimum Upgrading Requirements
Population Density (person/km2)>400100–400<100
Percentage of counties in this category  25% 45% 30% 
Industrialization level Industrial output CNY1.5 billon CNY1.2 billion CNY0.8 billion 
 Share of industrial output value in gross value of industrial and agricultural output 80% 70% 60% 
Population engaged in nonagricultural activities Size of nonagricultural population 150,000 120,000 100,000 
 Share of nonagricultural population in total population 30% 25% 20% 
Fiscal strength Fiscal revenues CNY60 million CNY50 million CNY40 million 
 Per capita fiscal revenues CNY100 CNY80 CNY60 
Population Density (person/km2)>400100–400<100
Percentage of counties in this category  25% 45% 30% 
Industrialization level Industrial output CNY1.5 billon CNY1.2 billion CNY0.8 billion 
 Share of industrial output value in gross value of industrial and agricultural output 80% 70% 60% 
Population engaged in nonagricultural activities Size of nonagricultural population 150,000 120,000 100,000 
 Share of nonagricultural population in total population 30% 25% 20% 
Fiscal strength Fiscal revenues CNY60 million CNY50 million CNY40 million 
 Per capita fiscal revenues CNY100 CNY80 CNY60 

CNY = yuan, km2 = square kilometer.

Source: Fan, Shenggen, Lixing Li, and Xiaobo Zhang. 2012. “Challenges of Creating Cities in China: Lessons from a Short-Lived County-to-City Upgrading Policy.” Journal of Comparative Economics 40 (3): 476–91.

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