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Table 2. 
County to County-Level City Upgrades, 1994–1997
Number of county-year observations by upgrading status and number of
requirements satisfied
Number of requirements satisfiedTotal0123
Nonupgrading cases 6,401 4,583 1,317 465 36 
Upgrading cases 99 24 30 39 
Number of county-year observations by upgrading status and number of
requirements satisfied
Number of requirements satisfiedTotal0123
Nonupgrading cases 6,401 4,583 1,317 465 36 
Upgrading cases 99 24 30 39 

Source: Fan, Shenggen, Lixing Li, and Xiaobo Zhang. 2012. “Challenges of Creating Cities in China: Lessons from a Short-Lived County-to-City Upgrading Policy.” Journal of Comparative Economics 40 (3): 476–91.

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