Table 1 reports summary statistics for 160 household heads in the survey, compared to all of Jakarta.2 The average age of a household head is 49 years, slightly above the average for Jakarta (45 years). Males comprise 81% of the household heads in the survey, and 48% were born in Jakarta (compared to 85% and 58%, respectively, for the Jakarta sample). The average household size is 5, compared to 4.1 for Jakarta. The average years of schooling is 7.2 years, relative to 10 years for Jakarta. Moreover, only 24% completed high school and 4% completed tertiary education, compared to 51% and 10%, respectively, for Jakarta. The average annual household income is $3,500 in the slum sample, relative to a gross regional product per capita of$14,000 for Jakarta (Badan Pusat Statistik 2016).

Table 1.