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Next, Table 5 presents educational mobility estimates using Indonesia's national socioeconomic survey (Survei Sosial Ekonomi Nasional, widely known as Susenas) in 2008. The benefit of using Susenas is that it is nationally representative, but the limitation is that it collects schooling data only for individuals who live together.5 Nonetheless, it is instructive to examine educational mobility in the national sample. Panel A reports the conditional transition probabilities for all households (column 1), urban households (column 2), and rural households (column 3). The overall transition probability is 57%, greater than that for the slum survey (42%). Individuals reported greater mobility in urban settings (69%), compared to rural areas (54%) and the slums. Panel B shows similar elasticities in the urban and rural samples, but the urban sample has a higher mean (9 years, compared to 7 years for rural).

Table 5. 
Intergenerational Educational Mobility, 2008 National Sample
Dependent Variable Sample: Child's Education 
 All (1) Urban (2) Rural (3) 
Panel A: Conditional Transition Probability 
Ln(parent's education) 0.57 0.69 0.54 
 [0.53,0.62] [0.63,0.75] [0.49,0.58] 
Panel B: Intergenerational Elasticity 
Ln(parent's education) 0.33*** 0.28*** 0.27*** 
 (0.003) (0.004) (0.004) 
No. of observations 665,332 250,949 414,383 
R-squared 0.17 0.17 0.09 
Mean 8.0 9.3 6.9 
Dependent Variable Sample: Child's Education 
 All (1) Urban (2) Rural (3) 
Panel A: Conditional Transition Probability 
Ln(parent's education) 0.57 0.69 0.54 
 [0.53,0.62] [0.63,0.75] [0.49,0.58] 
Panel B: Intergenerational Elasticity 
Ln(parent's education) 0.33*** 0.28*** 0.27*** 
 (0.003) (0.004) (0.004) 
No. of observations 665,332 250,949 414,383 
R-squared 0.17 0.17 0.09 
Mean 8.0 9.3 6.9 

Notes: Educational mobility using data from a 2008 national household survey. Panel A reports conditional transition probabilities with 95% confidence intervals in brackets, obtained from bootstrapping. Panel B presents intergenerational elasticities with standard errors clustered at the household level. *p < 0.1, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01.

Source: Author's calculations.

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