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Table 8 provides an overview of the dynamics of Thai exports from various dimensions. Of note is the steady decline in the growth of traders, with the number of traders actually declining on average during 2011–2015. Similarly, growth in the number of PMT relationships has declined substantially. Both of these suggest that the degree of dynamism in Thai exports has fallen. The middle panel of the table provides a glimpse of the “churn”—traders entering and exiting the market—underlying Thai exporters. On average, around 40% of traders enter and exit a market each year, though their contribution to total exports is very small: from 2011 to 2015 new traders accounted for roughly 1.8% of exports each year, while those that exited made up just 0.9%. Looking at a more granular level, the bottom section of Table 8 shows that between 2011 and 2015, just over half of all PMT relationships were new and lost on average per year. These made up around 7%–9% of total exports.

Table 7. 
Distribution of Exporters and Their Balance Sheet Attributes, 2013
Median Return on Assets (%) 
 Number of Countries  
Number of Products 1 2 3 4 5–29 30+ All 
4.6 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.3 3.2 4.5 
4.2 4.8 4.4 4.9 3.8 2.2 4.4 
4.8 5.3 5.0 4.3 4.1 4.7 4.7 
5.8 5.7 5.5 5.7 5.0 5.7 5.5 
5–29 5.6 5.0 6.0 6.4 5.4 5.4 5.5 
30+ 9.5 8.1 6.9 7.1 6.7 7.9 7.5 
All 4.8 4.9 5.1 5.5 5.2 6.1 5.0 
Median Turnover Ratio 
 Number of Countries  
Number of Products 1 2 3 4 5–29 30+ All 
1.4 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.9 1.4 
1.3 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.4 0.9 1.4 
1.5 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.4 
1.3 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.7 1.4 
5–29 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.4 
30+ 3.8 2.2 1.6 2.0 1.5 1.6 1.8 
All 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4 
Median Return on Assets (%) 
 Number of Countries  
Number of Products 1 2 3 4 5–29 30+ All 
4.6 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.3 3.2 4.5 
4.2 4.8 4.4 4.9 3.8 2.2 4.4 
4.8 5.3 5.0 4.3 4.1 4.7 4.7 
5.8 5.7 5.5 5.7 5.0 5.7 5.5 
5–29 5.6 5.0 6.0 6.4 5.4 5.4 5.5 
30+ 9.5 8.1 6.9 7.1 6.7 7.9 7.5 
All 4.8 4.9 5.1 5.5 5.2 6.1 5.0 
Median Turnover Ratio 
 Number of Countries  
Number of Products 1 2 3 4 5–29 30+ All 
1.4 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.9 1.4 
1.3 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.4 0.9 1.4 
1.5 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.4 
1.3 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.7 1.4 
5–29 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.4 
30+ 3.8 2.2 1.6 2.0 1.5 1.6 1.8 
All 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4 

Sources: Thai Customs Department and authors’ calculations.

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