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Table 3. 
Baseline Ordinary Least Squares Estimation Results
Variables(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Export 3.257*** 2.144*** 1.735*** 2.116*** 1.030*** 1.051*** 
     (0.142) (0.144) 
Log (Capital intensity)     0.202* 0.194 
     (0.119) (0.119) 
Log (Age)     0.461*** 0.471*** 
     (0.157) (0.152) 
SOE     −1.502** −1.208* 
     (0.683) (0.704) 
Import     0.494* 0.567 
     (0.295) (0.346) 
Log (R&D intensity)     −0.998 −0.341 
     (0.995) (0.594) 
Log (Environmental expenditure)     0.584** 0.607** 
     (0.246) (0.266) 
Constant 0.921*** −0.005 1.150*** 0.204 −1.238 −1.966** 
 (0.084) (0.203) (0.033) (0.239) (2.260) (0.793) 
Observations 63,584 63,584 63,584 8,051 8,051 8,051 
R-squared 0.021 0.050 0.252 0.062 0.055 0.074 
Industry-year effects Yes Yes No No Yes No 
Province effects No Yes No No Yes No 
Industry-province-year effects No No Yes Yes No Yes 
Variables(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Export 3.257*** 2.144*** 1.735*** 2.116*** 1.030*** 1.051*** 
     (0.142) (0.144) 
Log (Capital intensity)     0.202* 0.194 
     (0.119) (0.119) 
Log (Age)     0.461*** 0.471*** 
     (0.157) (0.152) 
SOE     −1.502** −1.208* 
     (0.683) (0.704) 
Import     0.494* 0.567 
     (0.295) (0.346) 
Log (R&D intensity)     −0.998 −0.341 
     (0.995) (0.594) 
Log (Environmental expenditure)     0.584** 0.607** 
     (0.246) (0.266) 
Constant 0.921*** −0.005 1.150*** 0.204 −1.238 −1.966** 
 (0.084) (0.203) (0.033) (0.239) (2.260) (0.793) 
Observations 63,584 63,584 63,584 8,051 8,051 8,051 
R-squared 0.021 0.050 0.252 0.062 0.055 0.074 
Industry-year effects Yes Yes No No Yes No 
Province effects No Yes No No Yes No 
Industry-province-year effects No No Yes Yes No Yes 

R&D = research and development, SOE = state-owned enterprise.

Notes: Robust standard errors are given in parentheses. The dependent variable is the number of accidents per thousand workers. *** = significant at 1%, ** = significant at 5%, and * = significant at 10%.

Source: Author's calculations based on annual enterprise surveys (various years) obtained from the Government of Viet Nam, General Statistics Office.

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