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Table 6. 
Estimation Results for Alternative Measures of Working Conditions
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
VariablesNumber of VictimsNumber of DeathsNumber of Deadly Accidents
Export 0.86166*** 0.00516 0.01283*** 0.00077 0.01053*** −0.00169 
 (0.138) (0.148) (0.004) (0.003) (0.003) (0.002) 
Foreign 1.46143*** 0.28419 −0.00041 0.00134 −0.00144 0.00127 
 (0.410) (0.331) (0.002) (0.006) (0.002) (0.006) 
Export × Foreign 1.16173* 1.76151** 0.00716 0.00208 0.00717 0.00284 
 (0.656) (0.723) (0.007) (0.007) (0.006) (0.006) 
Log (Female)  0.46173***  0.00159*  0.00185** 
  (0.106)  (0.001)  (0.001) 
Log (Capital  −0.00409  0.00009  0.00028 
intensity)  (0.014)  (0.000)  (0.000) 
SOE  0.20434  −0.00330  −0.00464 
  (0.294)  (0.003)  (0.003) 
Import    −0.00394**  −0.00348** 
    (0.002)  (0.001) 
Log (R&D intensity)    0.00271  0.00274 
    (0.004)  (0.004) 
Log (Environmental    0.00078  0.00124 
expenditure)    (0.001)  (0.001) 
Constant −0.16292* −0.47071** −0.00470 0.00193 −0.00339 0.00030 
 (0.087) (0.182) (0.003) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002) 
Observations 58,052 54,430 56,143 8,334 56,208 8,335 
R-squared 0.086 0.172 0.173 0.705 0.195 0.550 
Industry-year effects Yes No Yes No Yes No 
Province effects Yes No Yes No Yes No 
Industry-province- No Yes No Yes No Yes 
year effects 
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
VariablesNumber of VictimsNumber of DeathsNumber of Deadly Accidents
Export 0.86166*** 0.00516 0.01283*** 0.00077 0.01053*** −0.00169 
 (0.138) (0.148) (0.004) (0.003) (0.003) (0.002) 
Foreign 1.46143*** 0.28419 −0.00041 0.00134 −0.00144 0.00127 
 (0.410) (0.331) (0.002) (0.006) (0.002) (0.006) 
Export × Foreign 1.16173* 1.76151** 0.00716 0.00208 0.00717 0.00284 
 (0.656) (0.723) (0.007) (0.007) (0.006) (0.006) 
Log (Female)  0.46173***  0.00159*  0.00185** 
  (0.106)  (0.001)  (0.001) 
Log (Capital  −0.00409  0.00009  0.00028 
intensity)  (0.014)  (0.000)  (0.000) 
SOE  0.20434  −0.00330  −0.00464 
  (0.294)  (0.003)  (0.003) 
Import    −0.00394**  −0.00348** 
    (0.002)  (0.001) 
Log (R&D intensity)    0.00271  0.00274 
    (0.004)  (0.004) 
Log (Environmental    0.00078  0.00124 
expenditure)    (0.001)  (0.001) 
Constant −0.16292* −0.47071** −0.00470 0.00193 −0.00339 0.00030 
 (0.087) (0.182) (0.003) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002) 
Observations 58,052 54,430 56,143 8,334 56,208 8,335 
R-squared 0.086 0.172 0.173 0.705 0.195 0.550 
Industry-year effects Yes No Yes No Yes No 
Province effects Yes No Yes No Yes No 
Industry-province- No Yes No Yes No Yes 
year effects 

R&D = research and development, SOE = state-owned enterprise.

Notes: Robust standard errors are clustered by industry and given in parentheses. The dependent variables are number of victims of accidents, number of deaths, and number of deadly accidents. Export intensity is measured by the fraction of sales exported. *** = significant at 1%, ** = significant at 5%, and * = significant at 10%.

Source: Author's calculations based on annual enterprise surveys (various years) obtained from the Government of Viet Nam, General Statistics Office.

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