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Table 1. 

Functional effects underlying the fight-or-flight response in animals.

Physiological effect
Functional role
Biological examples
Robot analogues
Mobilization of energy Redistribution of energy among subsystems Acceleration in respiration and heart rate, slowing down of digestive system, constriction of blood vessels Adaptive and autonomous energy management systems 
Modulation of sensory systems Modifying sensitivity to stimuli Dilation of pupils (mydriasis), auditory exclusion (loss of hearing), tunnel vision (loss of peripheral vision) Modulation of sensors (e.g., changing range of vision or laser systems); adaptive sensor fusion 
Modulation of motor systems Changing the way they respond to neural activation Liberation of nutrients to muscular system and dilation of blood vessels for muscles Modulation of motor operation (e.g., active compliance); adaptive body dynamics 
Neuromodulation Changing cognitive readiness through the plasticity of the neural system The serotonergic system sets threat level for risk aversion, the cholinergic system sets attentional effort, the dopaminergic system drives reward anticipation and motivation, and the noradrenergic system sets response to novel and salient objects (cf. [24]). Metacontrol, that is, changes to the control system (e.g., neuromodulation of ANN) 
Other effects Varied The release of opiates has an analgesic effect that makes the system less sensitive to pain. Any ad hoc adaptive mechanism 
Physiological effect
Functional role
Biological examples
Robot analogues
Mobilization of energy Redistribution of energy among subsystems Acceleration in respiration and heart rate, slowing down of digestive system, constriction of blood vessels Adaptive and autonomous energy management systems 
Modulation of sensory systems Modifying sensitivity to stimuli Dilation of pupils (mydriasis), auditory exclusion (loss of hearing), tunnel vision (loss of peripheral vision) Modulation of sensors (e.g., changing range of vision or laser systems); adaptive sensor fusion 
Modulation of motor systems Changing the way they respond to neural activation Liberation of nutrients to muscular system and dilation of blood vessels for muscles Modulation of motor operation (e.g., active compliance); adaptive body dynamics 
Neuromodulation Changing cognitive readiness through the plasticity of the neural system The serotonergic system sets threat level for risk aversion, the cholinergic system sets attentional effort, the dopaminergic system drives reward anticipation and motivation, and the noradrenergic system sets response to novel and salient objects (cf. [24]). Metacontrol, that is, changes to the control system (e.g., neuromodulation of ANN) 
Other effects Varied The release of opiates has an analgesic effect that makes the system less sensitive to pain. Any ad hoc adaptive mechanism 
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