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Table 2.
Income mobility, absolute and relative by ethnicity
 Chinese Bumiputera Indian 
 Parents' income quintile 
 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 All families Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 All families Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 All families 
Upwardly mobile 89% 73% 52% 32% 0% 38% 73% 52% 37% 16% 0% 34% 62% 52% 44% 8% 0% 39% 
Higher income and up by at least one quintile                   
Riding the rising tide 2% 19% 18% 17% 13% 15% 8% 19% 16% 15% 8% 13% 15% 13% 18% 11% 7% 14% 
Higher income but same quintile                   
Falling despite the rising tide 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 3% 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 5% 0% 0% 2% 
Higher income but lower quintile                   
Status quo 6% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 5% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 
Same income & same quintile                   
Vulnerable 3% 3% 2% 17% 29% 14% 13% 3% 7% 7% 19% 10% 22% 12% 12% 13% 24% 16% 
Lower income but same quintile                   
Downward mobility 0% 6% 27% 34% 58% 32% 0% 25% 37% 62% 73% 42% 0% 22% 20% 68% 69% 30% 
Lower income & down by at least one quintile                   
 Chinese Bumiputera Indian 
 Parents' income quintile 
 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 All families Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 All families Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 All families 
Upwardly mobile 89% 73% 52% 32% 0% 38% 73% 52% 37% 16% 0% 34% 62% 52% 44% 8% 0% 39% 
Higher income and up by at least one quintile                   
Riding the rising tide 2% 19% 18% 17% 13% 15% 8% 19% 16% 15% 8% 13% 15% 13% 18% 11% 7% 14% 
Higher income but same quintile                   
Falling despite the rising tide 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 3% 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 5% 0% 0% 2% 
Higher income but lower quintile                   
Status quo 6% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 5% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 
Same income & same quintile                   
Vulnerable 3% 3% 2% 17% 29% 14% 13% 3% 7% 7% 19% 10% 22% 12% 12% 13% 24% 16% 
Lower income but same quintile                   
Downward mobility 0% 6% 27% 34% 58% 32% 0% 25% 37% 62% 73% 42% 0% 22% 20% 68% 69% 30% 
Lower income & down by at least one quintile                   
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