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Table 5.
Estimates of the Impact of Autonomy on School Achievement Outcomes
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)
Alternative Bandwidths
OutcomeOLSOLSOLS (Preferred RD BW)Main RD-IV SpecificationMain RD-IV Specification2004 ISAT: 43–67%2004 ISAT: 40–70%2004 ISAT: 35–75%
Year 1 (2005–06)         
Math 0.231*** −0.016 0.053 −0.224 −0.146 −0.010 −0.057 −0.095 
Achievement (0.0328) (0.0230) (0.0349) (0.2953) (0.1780) (0.1272) (0.1464) (0.1136) 
Reading 0.217*** −0.025 0.047* −0.091 −0.033 0.046 0.017 0.0463 
Achievement (0.0304) (0.0185) (0.0238) (0.2109) (0.1285) (0.1135) (0.1268) (0.0886) 
School Proficiency 22.15*** 1.39* 3.24** 4.82 2.12 1.26 −1.29 −0.128 
(Math) (1.279) (0.749) (1.391) (8.662) (7.710) (7.11) (7.635) (5.256) 
School Proficiency 20.88*** 1.12 2.65* 17.12 15.28 9.99 7.08 5.92 
(Reading) (1.409) (0.689) (1.444) (12.376) (9.869) (8.101) (7.915) (5.429) 
Year 2 (2006–07)         
Math 0.221*** −0.007 0.046 −0.031 −0.024 0.0112 −0.041 −0.010 
Achievement (0.0316) (0.0236) (0.0377) (0.2439) (0.1809) (0.1414) (0.1656) (0.1217) 
Reading 0.202*** −0.026 0.027 −0.054 0.014 0.087 0.100 0.120 
Achievement (0.0292) (0.0203) (0.0259) (0.2093) (0.1317) (0.1208) (0.1325) (0.1006) 
School Proficiency 20.18 *** 1.25 * 3.15 ** 16.06 9.91 3.69 2.72 1.645 
(Math) (1.173) (0.759) (1.570) (11.893) (8.554) (7.377) (8.087) (5.635) 
School Proficiency 20.51*** 1.43* 2.90* 23.36 18.73* 16.75* 15.99* 12.00* 
(Reading) (1.310) (0.752) (1.555) (14.894) (10.154) (9.301) (9.695) (6.414) 
School   
Characteristics         
Sample Size 450 450 111 111 111 185 221 287 
(Schools)         
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)
Alternative Bandwidths
OutcomeOLSOLSOLS (Preferred RD BW)Main RD-IV SpecificationMain RD-IV Specification2004 ISAT: 43–67%2004 ISAT: 40–70%2004 ISAT: 35–75%
Year 1 (2005–06)         
Math 0.231*** −0.016 0.053 −0.224 −0.146 −0.010 −0.057 −0.095 
Achievement (0.0328) (0.0230) (0.0349) (0.2953) (0.1780) (0.1272) (0.1464) (0.1136) 
Reading 0.217*** −0.025 0.047* −0.091 −0.033 0.046 0.017 0.0463 
Achievement (0.0304) (0.0185) (0.0238) (0.2109) (0.1285) (0.1135) (0.1268) (0.0886) 
School Proficiency 22.15*** 1.39* 3.24** 4.82 2.12 1.26 −1.29 −0.128 
(Math) (1.279) (0.749) (1.391) (8.662) (7.710) (7.11) (7.635) (5.256) 
School Proficiency 20.88*** 1.12 2.65* 17.12 15.28 9.99 7.08 5.92 
(Reading) (1.409) (0.689) (1.444) (12.376) (9.869) (8.101) (7.915) (5.429) 
Year 2 (2006–07)         
Math 0.221*** −0.007 0.046 −0.031 −0.024 0.0112 −0.041 −0.010 
Achievement (0.0316) (0.0236) (0.0377) (0.2439) (0.1809) (0.1414) (0.1656) (0.1217) 
Reading 0.202*** −0.026 0.027 −0.054 0.014 0.087 0.100 0.120 
Achievement (0.0292) (0.0203) (0.0259) (0.2093) (0.1317) (0.1208) (0.1325) (0.1006) 
School Proficiency 20.18 *** 1.25 * 3.15 ** 16.06 9.91 3.69 2.72 1.645 
(Math) (1.173) (0.759) (1.570) (11.893) (8.554) (7.377) (8.087) (5.635) 
School Proficiency 20.51*** 1.43* 2.90* 23.36 18.73* 16.75* 15.99* 12.00* 
(Reading) (1.310) (0.752) (1.555) (14.894) (10.154) (9.301) (9.695) (6.414) 
School   
Characteristics         
Sample Size 450 450 111 111 111 185 221 287 
(Schools)         

Notes: Coefficients (with robust standard errors) for Math and Reading Achievement outcomes are in standard deviation units. For Year 1, the outcome variable for Math (Reading) Achievement is the standardized 2006 ISAT math (reading) score (mean zero and unit variance across the sample of tested students in grades 3–8); for Year 2, the outcome variable for Math (Reading) Achievement is the standardized 2007 ISAT math (reading) score. The Math and Reading Achievement outcomes have been residualized (e.g., residuals from a regression of math or reading achievement on the following student-level characteristics: gender, race, grade level (age as of September 1 of the school year), free/reduced price lunch status, IEP status and LEP status) and aggregated (averaged) to the school level. Coefficients (with robust standard errors) for School Proficiency outcomes are in percentage points; School Proficiency represents the share of a school's students who met or exceeded Illinois state standards on the ISAT math or reading test. School characteristics include controls for enrollment, gender, the percent of African American, Hispanic, white, Asian and other race (Native American and multi-race) students, the proportion of students identified as LEP, in receipt of an IEP, and receiving free/reduced-price lunch. For models (1)–(3), the running variable (2004 ISAT composite) is included in the set of school covariates. Coefficients are statistically significant at the *10%, **5%, and ***1% levels.

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