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Table 1. 
Sample Means by Analysis Sample
Reading Analysis,Reading Analysis,
AllRemediation inMath AnalysisFailed WritingPassed Writing
Test-TakersNo RemediationAny SubjectSample (±4 pts)(±4 pts)(±4 pts)
Assigned to Dev Math, College Std. 0.720 0.000 0.793 0.573 0.776 0.752 
Assigned to Dev Writing College Std. 0.719 0.000 0.792 0.660 1.000 0.000 
Assigned to Dev Reading College Std. 0.378 0.000 0.418 0.303 0.481 0.442 
Assigned to Any Dev Ed. College Std. 0.901 0.000 1.000 0.851 1.000 0.840 
Female 0.578 0.562 0.580 0.561 0.569 0.683 
Age 21.585 20.102 21.712 20.941 21.104 20.408 
White, Non-Hispanic 0.142 0.233 0.134 0.176 0.116 0.156 
Black, Non-Hispanic 0.282 0.280 0.282 0.290 0.303 0.306 
Latino 0.343 0.231 0.354 0.303 0.365 0.331 
Asian Pacific Islander 0.106 0.116 0.106 0.106 0.108 0.082 
Other Race 0.067 0.067 0.066 0.061 0.062 0.068 
Language Minority 0.527 0.426 0.537 0.514 0.540 0.429 
Graduated from Local High School 0.551 0.653 0.543 0.579 0.586 0.643 
Years delayed enrollment 2.664 1.838 2.728 2.269 2.182 1.728 
HS GPA (0–100 scale, non-missing) 73.558 75.705 73.343 73.526 72.704 73.343 
HS College Prep Units (non-missing) 11.737 14.452 11.509 12.158 11.642 12.531 
Has HS GPA 0.904 0.942 0.901 0.913 0.907 0.934 
Four-year college is 1st Choice 0.294 0.394 0.285 0.296 0.313 0.390 
Received Pell at Entry (non-missing) 0.569 0.455 0.582 0.534 0.602 0.572 
Missing Pell Data 0.170 0.113 0.174 0.131 0.161 0.160 
Dependent at Entry (non-missing) 0.737 0.837 0.729 0.774 0.776 0.787 
Missing Dependency Data 0.366 0.392 0.361 0.359 0.331 0.353 
Enrolled immediately 0.750 0.837 0.743 0.789 0.773 0.787 
Enrolled w/in 3 0.829 0.886 0.825 0.866 0.838 0.840 
Took Dev. Math w/in 3 0.547 0.195 0.581 0.533 0.578 0.587 
Took College Math w/in 3 0.367 0.642 0.342 0.481 0.352 0.385 
Passed College Math 0.299 0.536 0.277 0.382 0.290 0.319 
C or Higher in College Math 0.249 0.469 0.229 0.317 0.240 0.268 
B or Higher in College Math 0.176 0.363 0.158 0.217 0.163 0.171 
Took Dev. Reading w/in 3 0.219 0.002 0.241 0.179 0.251 0.258 
Took College English w/in 3 0.534 0.856 0.504 0.611 0.477 0.745 
Passed College English 0.451 0.742 0.424 0.519 0.408 0.628 
C or Higher in College English 0.425 0.720 0.398 0.492 0.380 0.591 
B or Higher in College English 0.310 0.596 0.284 0.364 0.256 0.418 
Earned AA or BA w/in 3 0.092 0.220 0.080 0.115 0.084 0.136 
Transferred or Earned Degree w/in 3 0.124 0.294 0.109 0.155 0.112 0.180 
Still Enrolled at End of Year 3 0.240 0.191 0.245 0.244 0.253 0.205 
Dropped Out by Year 3 0.635 0.516 0.645 0.601 0.634 0.615 
Number of terms enrolled w/in 3 3.297 3.882 3.249 3.503 3.351 3.463 
Tot. Equated Credits Passed in 3 29.761 39.009 28.967 33.036 29.762 31.347 
Tot. College Credits Passed in 3 23.347 37.504 22.072 26.811 22.507 27.607 
Took CPE w/in 3 0.142 0.315 0.126 0.172 0.130 0.209 
Pass CPE w/in 3 0.129 0.302 0.114 0.157 0.116 0.197 
CPE Highest Score w/in 3 42.427 44.789 41.899 42.045 41.611 42.899 
Sample Size 100,250 7,592 90,342 18,724 7,049 1,374 
Reading Analysis,Reading Analysis,
AllRemediation inMath AnalysisFailed WritingPassed Writing
Test-TakersNo RemediationAny SubjectSample (±4 pts)(±4 pts)(±4 pts)
Assigned to Dev Math, College Std. 0.720 0.000 0.793 0.573 0.776 0.752 
Assigned to Dev Writing College Std. 0.719 0.000 0.792 0.660 1.000 0.000 
Assigned to Dev Reading College Std. 0.378 0.000 0.418 0.303 0.481 0.442 
Assigned to Any Dev Ed. College Std. 0.901 0.000 1.000 0.851 1.000 0.840 
Female 0.578 0.562 0.580 0.561 0.569 0.683 
Age 21.585 20.102 21.712 20.941 21.104 20.408 
White, Non-Hispanic 0.142 0.233 0.134 0.176 0.116 0.156 
Black, Non-Hispanic 0.282 0.280 0.282 0.290 0.303 0.306 
Latino 0.343 0.231 0.354 0.303 0.365 0.331 
Asian Pacific Islander 0.106 0.116 0.106 0.106 0.108 0.082 
Other Race 0.067 0.067 0.066 0.061 0.062 0.068 
Language Minority 0.527 0.426 0.537 0.514 0.540 0.429 
Graduated from Local High School 0.551 0.653 0.543 0.579 0.586 0.643 
Years delayed enrollment 2.664 1.838 2.728 2.269 2.182 1.728 
HS GPA (0–100 scale, non-missing) 73.558 75.705 73.343 73.526 72.704 73.343 
HS College Prep Units (non-missing) 11.737 14.452 11.509 12.158 11.642 12.531 
Has HS GPA 0.904 0.942 0.901 0.913 0.907 0.934 
Four-year college is 1st Choice 0.294 0.394 0.285 0.296 0.313 0.390 
Received Pell at Entry (non-missing) 0.569 0.455 0.582 0.534 0.602 0.572 
Missing Pell Data 0.170 0.113 0.174 0.131 0.161 0.160 
Dependent at Entry (non-missing) 0.737 0.837 0.729 0.774 0.776 0.787 
Missing Dependency Data 0.366 0.392 0.361 0.359 0.331 0.353 
Enrolled immediately 0.750 0.837 0.743 0.789 0.773 0.787 
Enrolled w/in 3 0.829 0.886 0.825 0.866 0.838 0.840 
Took Dev. Math w/in 3 0.547 0.195 0.581 0.533 0.578 0.587 
Took College Math w/in 3 0.367 0.642 0.342 0.481 0.352 0.385 
Passed College Math 0.299 0.536 0.277 0.382 0.290 0.319 
C or Higher in College Math 0.249 0.469 0.229 0.317 0.240 0.268 
B or Higher in College Math 0.176 0.363 0.158 0.217 0.163 0.171 
Took Dev. Reading w/in 3 0.219 0.002 0.241 0.179 0.251 0.258 
Took College English w/in 3 0.534 0.856 0.504 0.611 0.477 0.745 
Passed College English 0.451 0.742 0.424 0.519 0.408 0.628 
C or Higher in College English 0.425 0.720 0.398 0.492 0.380 0.591 
B or Higher in College English 0.310 0.596 0.284 0.364 0.256 0.418 
Earned AA or BA w/in 3 0.092 0.220 0.080 0.115 0.084 0.136 
Transferred or Earned Degree w/in 3 0.124 0.294 0.109 0.155 0.112 0.180 
Still Enrolled at End of Year 3 0.240 0.191 0.245 0.244 0.253 0.205 
Dropped Out by Year 3 0.635 0.516 0.645 0.601 0.634 0.615 
Number of terms enrolled w/in 3 3.297 3.882 3.249 3.503 3.351 3.463 
Tot. Equated Credits Passed in 3 29.761 39.009 28.967 33.036 29.762 31.347 
Tot. College Credits Passed in 3 23.347 37.504 22.072 26.811 22.507 27.607 
Took CPE w/in 3 0.142 0.315 0.126 0.172 0.130 0.209 
Pass CPE w/in 3 0.129 0.302 0.114 0.157 0.116 0.197 
CPE Highest Score w/in 3 42.427 44.789 41.899 42.045 41.611 42.899 
Sample Size 100,250 7,592 90,342 18,724 7,049 1,374 
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