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Table 4. 
Impacts of Reading Remedial Assignment versus College-Level Placement
Main SpecificationNo CovariatesNarrow BandwidthWide Bandwidth
OutcomeB(SE)B(SE)B(SE)B(SE)
Enrolled immediately −0.027 (0.037)  −0.030 (0.037)  −0.025 (0.046)  −0.024 (0.040)  
Enrolled w/in 3 years −0.036 (0.033)  −0.044 (0.033)  −0.075 (0.041) −0.042 (0.036)  
Took dev writing 0.007 (0.011)  0.007 (0.011)  0.000 (0.015)  0.017 (0.012)  
Took dev reading 0.559 (0.035) *** 0.552 (0.035) *** 0.573 (0.045) *** 0.546 (0.040) *** 
Took college-level English −0.155 (0.040) *** −0.160 (0.040) *** −0.184 (0.050) *** −0.145 (0.044) *** 
Passed college-level English −0.125 (0.043) *** −0.134 (0.043) *** −0.143 (0.055) *** −0.107 (0.047) ** 
Earned C or higher in CL English −0.138 (0.044) *** −0.147 (0.044) *** −0.150 (0.055) *** −0.135 (0.048) *** 
Earned B or higher in CL English −0.109 (0.044) ** −0.113 (0.044) ** −0.127 (0.055) ** −0.097 (0.047) ** 
Earned AA −0.054 (0.031) −0.058 (0.032) −0.029 (0.039)  −0.050 (0.034)  
Earned AA or transferred w/in 3 −0.047 (0.035)  −0.054 (0.035)  −0.022 (0.044)  −0.049 (0.038)  
Still persisting −0.034 (0.036)  −0.038 (0.036)  −0.072 (0.045)  −0.037 (0.040)  
Dropped out 0.080 (0.044) 0.091 (0.044) ** 0.090 (0.055)  0.083 (0.048) 
Semesters enrolled −0.236 (0.222)  −0.296 (0.224)  −0.225 (0.278)  −0.251 (0.241)  
Total equated credits −2.306 (2.624)  −2.960 (2.687)  −1.521 (3.263)  −1.975 (2.850)  
College level credits −4.228 (2.430) −4.837 (2.494) −3.183 (3.023)  −4.058 (2.633)  
Took college exit exam −0.029 (0.037)  −0.036 (0.037)  0.005 (0.047)  −0.020 (0.040)  
Passed college exit exam −0.034 (0.036)  −0.040 (0.037)  −0.005 (0.046)  −0.024 (0.039)  
Score on college exit exam* 1.352 (1.483)  1.352 (1.511)  2.090 (1.937)  1.553 (1.585)  
Bandwidth ± 6 points ± 6 points ± 4 points ± 12 points 
Functional Form Local Linear Local Linear Local Linear Local Quadratic 
School/Cohort FE 
Covariates  
Sample size 2,122 2,122 1,374 4,381 
Main SpecificationNo CovariatesNarrow BandwidthWide Bandwidth
OutcomeB(SE)B(SE)B(SE)B(SE)
Enrolled immediately −0.027 (0.037)  −0.030 (0.037)  −0.025 (0.046)  −0.024 (0.040)  
Enrolled w/in 3 years −0.036 (0.033)  −0.044 (0.033)  −0.075 (0.041) −0.042 (0.036)  
Took dev writing 0.007 (0.011)  0.007 (0.011)  0.000 (0.015)  0.017 (0.012)  
Took dev reading 0.559 (0.035) *** 0.552 (0.035) *** 0.573 (0.045) *** 0.546 (0.040) *** 
Took college-level English −0.155 (0.040) *** −0.160 (0.040) *** −0.184 (0.050) *** −0.145 (0.044) *** 
Passed college-level English −0.125 (0.043) *** −0.134 (0.043) *** −0.143 (0.055) *** −0.107 (0.047) ** 
Earned C or higher in CL English −0.138 (0.044) *** −0.147 (0.044) *** −0.150 (0.055) *** −0.135 (0.048) *** 
Earned B or higher in CL English −0.109 (0.044) ** −0.113 (0.044) ** −0.127 (0.055) ** −0.097 (0.047) ** 
Earned AA −0.054 (0.031) −0.058 (0.032) −0.029 (0.039)  −0.050 (0.034)  
Earned AA or transferred w/in 3 −0.047 (0.035)  −0.054 (0.035)  −0.022 (0.044)  −0.049 (0.038)  
Still persisting −0.034 (0.036)  −0.038 (0.036)  −0.072 (0.045)  −0.037 (0.040)  
Dropped out 0.080 (0.044) 0.091 (0.044) ** 0.090 (0.055)  0.083 (0.048) 
Semesters enrolled −0.236 (0.222)  −0.296 (0.224)  −0.225 (0.278)  −0.251 (0.241)  
Total equated credits −2.306 (2.624)  −2.960 (2.687)  −1.521 (3.263)  −1.975 (2.850)  
College level credits −4.228 (2.430) −4.837 (2.494) −3.183 (3.023)  −4.058 (2.633)  
Took college exit exam −0.029 (0.037)  −0.036 (0.037)  0.005 (0.047)  −0.020 (0.040)  
Passed college exit exam −0.034 (0.036)  −0.040 (0.037)  −0.005 (0.046)  −0.024 (0.039)  
Score on college exit exam* 1.352 (1.483)  1.352 (1.511)  2.090 (1.937)  1.553 (1.585)  
Bandwidth ± 6 points ± 6 points ± 4 points ± 12 points 
Functional Form Local Linear Local Linear Local Linear Local Quadratic 
School/Cohort FE 
Covariates  
Sample size 2,122 2,122 1,374 4,381 

Source: Restricted use database covering placement test takers at LUCCS community colleges.

Notes: All outcomes measured three years after test date unless otherwise noted. Outcomes for college-level English include zeros for those who never took college-level English. Equated credits are a measure of total credits which include remedial coursework. Estimates of effects on exit exam scores are not strictly causal because they are computed only for those students (representing approximately 17 percent of the analysis sample) who took the exam; however, when there is no impact on taking the exam, this limits the concern that such comparisons are biased by differential selection.

****Statistically significant at the 1% level; **statistically significant at the 5% level; *statistically significant at the 10% level.

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