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Table 6. 
Risk Subgroup Results: Effects of Assignment to Math Remediation
Risk Subgroups (Bottom 25%, Middle 50%, Top 25%)Model with Risk Interaction Effect
Lower-RiskMiddle-RiskHighest RiskMain Effect ofInteraction of
OutcomeSubgroupSubgroupSubgroupRem. AssignmentAssignment*Risk
Enrolled immediately −0.021 (0.021) −0.029 (0.014) ** −0.028 (0.021) −0.017 (0.029) −0.014 (0.052) 
Enrolled w/in 3 years −0.008 (0.017) −0.013 (0.012) −0.003 (0.019) −0.002 (0.025) −0.012 (0.045) 
Took dev math 0.366 (0.022) *** 0.261 (0.016) *** 0.214 (0.023) *** 0.509 (0.030) *** −0.444 (0.053) *** 
Took college-level math −0.076 (0.025) *** −0.092 (0.018) *** −0.075 (0.024) *** 0.016 (0.033) −0.192 (0.059) *** 
Passed college-level math −0.089 (0.025) *** −0.054 (0.018) *** −0.033 (0.022) −0.081 (0.033) ** 0.045 (0.057) 
Earned C or higher in CL math −0.086 (0.025) *** −0.037 (0.017) ** −0.032 (0.021) −0.113 (0.032) *** 0.123 (0.056) ** 
Earned B or higher in CL math −0.043 (0.024) −0.022 (0.014) −0.006 (0.018) −0.121 (0.030) *** 0.185 (0.051) *** 
Earned AA 0.010 (0.020) −0.009 (0.011) −0.006 (0.013) −0.046 (0.024) 0.080 (0.041) ** 
Earned AA or transferred 0.018 (0.022) −0.012 (0.013) −0.011 (0.014) −0.043 (0.027) 0.073 (0.046) 
Still persisting 0.012 (0.023) −0.024 (0.016) −0.008 (0.021) 0.011 (0.029) −0.040 (0.051) 
Dropped out −0.030 (0.026) 0.037 (0.018) ** 0.021 (0.023) 0.037 (0.033) −0.039 (0.058) 
Semesters enrolled 0.099 (0.124) −0.110 (0.086) 0.053 (0.123) −0.087 (0.166) 0.139 (0.296) 
Total equated credits 1.289 (1.557) −0.373 (1.030) 1.104 (1.386) −1.802 (2.016) 4.284 (3.542) 
College level credits 0.337 (1.404) −1.295 (0.906) 0.319 (1.198) −4.320 (1.808) ** 7.344 (3.160) ** 
Took college exit exam −0.004 (0.023) −0.003 (0.013) 0.013 (0.015) −0.070 (0.028) ** 0.133 (0.047) *** 
Passed college exit exam −0.007 (0.022) −0.005 (0.013) 0.009 (0.015) −0.078 (0.027) *** 0.144 (0.046) *** 
Score on college exit exam* 0.358 (0.692) −0.611 (0.694) −0.868 (1.312) 0.886 (1.144) −2.180 (2.205) 
Bandwidth ± 6 points ± 6 points ± 6 points ± 6 points ± 6 points 
Functional form Local Linear Local Linear Local Linear Local Linear Local Linear 
School/cohort FE 
Covariates 
Sample size 6,141 12,192 6,282 24,615 24,615 
Risk Subgroups (Bottom 25%, Middle 50%, Top 25%)Model with Risk Interaction Effect
Lower-RiskMiddle-RiskHighest RiskMain Effect ofInteraction of
OutcomeSubgroupSubgroupSubgroupRem. AssignmentAssignment*Risk
Enrolled immediately −0.021 (0.021) −0.029 (0.014) ** −0.028 (0.021) −0.017 (0.029) −0.014 (0.052) 
Enrolled w/in 3 years −0.008 (0.017) −0.013 (0.012) −0.003 (0.019) −0.002 (0.025) −0.012 (0.045) 
Took dev math 0.366 (0.022) *** 0.261 (0.016) *** 0.214 (0.023) *** 0.509 (0.030) *** −0.444 (0.053) *** 
Took college-level math −0.076 (0.025) *** −0.092 (0.018) *** −0.075 (0.024) *** 0.016 (0.033) −0.192 (0.059) *** 
Passed college-level math −0.089 (0.025) *** −0.054 (0.018) *** −0.033 (0.022) −0.081 (0.033) ** 0.045 (0.057) 
Earned C or higher in CL math −0.086 (0.025) *** −0.037 (0.017) ** −0.032 (0.021) −0.113 (0.032) *** 0.123 (0.056) ** 
Earned B or higher in CL math −0.043 (0.024) −0.022 (0.014) −0.006 (0.018) −0.121 (0.030) *** 0.185 (0.051) *** 
Earned AA 0.010 (0.020) −0.009 (0.011) −0.006 (0.013) −0.046 (0.024) 0.080 (0.041) ** 
Earned AA or transferred 0.018 (0.022) −0.012 (0.013) −0.011 (0.014) −0.043 (0.027) 0.073 (0.046) 
Still persisting 0.012 (0.023) −0.024 (0.016) −0.008 (0.021) 0.011 (0.029) −0.040 (0.051) 
Dropped out −0.030 (0.026) 0.037 (0.018) ** 0.021 (0.023) 0.037 (0.033) −0.039 (0.058) 
Semesters enrolled 0.099 (0.124) −0.110 (0.086) 0.053 (0.123) −0.087 (0.166) 0.139 (0.296) 
Total equated credits 1.289 (1.557) −0.373 (1.030) 1.104 (1.386) −1.802 (2.016) 4.284 (3.542) 
College level credits 0.337 (1.404) −1.295 (0.906) 0.319 (1.198) −4.320 (1.808) ** 7.344 (3.160) ** 
Took college exit exam −0.004 (0.023) −0.003 (0.013) 0.013 (0.015) −0.070 (0.028) ** 0.133 (0.047) *** 
Passed college exit exam −0.007 (0.022) −0.005 (0.013) 0.009 (0.015) −0.078 (0.027) *** 0.144 (0.046) *** 
Score on college exit exam* 0.358 (0.692) −0.611 (0.694) −0.868 (1.312) 0.886 (1.144) −2.180 (2.205) 
Bandwidth ± 6 points ± 6 points ± 6 points ± 6 points ± 6 points 
Functional form Local Linear Local Linear Local Linear Local Linear Local Linear 
School/cohort FE 
Covariates 
Sample size 6,141 12,192 6,282 24,615 24,615 

Source: Restricted use database covering placement test takers at LUCCS community colleges.

Notes: All outcomes measured three years after test date unless otherwise noted. Approximately 76 percent of tested students enroll immediately and 84 percent enroll within three years. The model with risk interaction effects adds to the baseline model a linear control for estimated dropout risk and an interaction between estimated dropout risk and an indicator for remedial assignment. The main effect in this model can be interpreted as the estimated effect of assignment to remediation for a hypothetical student with zero dropout risk. The interaction coefficient then indicates the additional effect of remedial assignment for a hypothetical student with a 100 percent dropout risk. The average two-year dropout risk in the sample is 53 percent. See table 2 for full sample main results.

***Statistically significant at the 1% level; **statistically significant at the 5% level; *statistically significant at the 10% level.

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