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Table 3. 
Early Grade Retention and Misbehavior Same Age Comparisons, Short-Term Effects
LinearQuartic
(I)(II)(I)(II)
Score Range552020
1 year later     
Disciplinary incident 0.031*** 0.039*** 0.046*** 0.064*** 
 (0.008) (0.009) (0.014) (0.012) 
In-school suspension 0.009 0.009 0.013 0.016 
 (0.009) (0.009) (0.011) (0.011) 
Out-of-school suspension 0.037*** 0.045*** 0.046*** 0.062*** 
 (0.012) (0.013) (0.016) (0.016) 
2 years later     
Disciplinary incident 0.050*** 0.055*** 0.048*** 0.054** 
 (0.010) (0.011) (0.017) (0.020) 
In-school suspension 0.034*** 0.033*** 0.040*** 0.040*** 
 (0.003) (0.004) (0.009) (0.009) 
Out-of-school suspension 0.025** 0.028 0.018 0.025* 
 (0.007) (0.009) (0.012) (0.014) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.313*** 0.319*** 0.314*** 0.322*** 
 (0.007) (0.006) (0.008) (0.007) 
43,793 43,793 178,248 178,248 
Cohort FE Yes Yes Yes Yes 
Student covariates No Yes No Yes 
Within-school peer average No Yes No Yes 
LinearQuartic
(I)(II)(I)(II)
Score Range552020
1 year later     
Disciplinary incident 0.031*** 0.039*** 0.046*** 0.064*** 
 (0.008) (0.009) (0.014) (0.012) 
In-school suspension 0.009 0.009 0.013 0.016 
 (0.009) (0.009) (0.011) (0.011) 
Out-of-school suspension 0.037*** 0.045*** 0.046*** 0.062*** 
 (0.012) (0.013) (0.016) (0.016) 
2 years later     
Disciplinary incident 0.050*** 0.055*** 0.048*** 0.054** 
 (0.010) (0.011) (0.017) (0.020) 
In-school suspension 0.034*** 0.033*** 0.040*** 0.040*** 
 (0.003) (0.004) (0.009) (0.009) 
Out-of-school suspension 0.025** 0.028 0.018 0.025* 
 (0.007) (0.009) (0.012) (0.014) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.313*** 0.319*** 0.314*** 0.322*** 
 (0.007) (0.006) (0.008) (0.007) 
43,793 43,793 178,248 178,248 
Cohort FE Yes Yes Yes Yes 
Student covariates No Yes No Yes 
Within-school peer average No Yes No Yes 

Notes: Robust standard errors, clustered at the relative reading score level, are given in parentheses. Discontinuity estimates are obtained parametrically using the specified polynomial order and the score range. Columns labeled as (I) present the estimates from the base specification in equations 4a and 4b, with the addition of cohort fixed effects, and the columns labeled as (II) add student covariates and within-school peer averages to the estimation.

*Statistical significance at 10%; **statistical significance at 5%; ***statistical significance at 1%.

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