Skip to Main Content
Table 5. 
Early Grade Retention and Misbehavior Same Grade Comparisons
LinearQuartic
(I)(II)(I)(II)
Score Range552020
4th grade     
Disciplinary incident 0.045*** 0.046*** 0.046** 0.050*** 
 (0.016) (0.009) (0.021) (0.014) 
In-school suspension 0.009 0.005 0.004 0.002 
 (0.008) (0.007) (0.012) (0.010) 
Out-of-school suspension 0.044** 0.046*** 0.050** 0.054*** 
 (0.020) (0.015) (0.022) (0.016) 
5th grade     
Disciplinary incident 0.055*** 0.056*** 0.065*** 0.063*** 
 (0.021) (0.016) (0.026) (0.020) 
In-school suspension 0.046*** 0.047*** 0.053*** 0.053*** 
 (0.014) (0.013) (0.020) (0.018) 
Out-of-school suspension 0.023** 0.026*** 0.018 0.021* 
 (0.011) (0.008) (0.016) (0.012) 
6th grade     
Disciplinary incident 0.051 0.059** 0.025 0.031 
 (0.042) (0.030) (0.046) (0.034) 
In-school suspension 0.008 0.016 −0.027 −0.019* 
 (0.020) (0.020) (0.019) (0.011) 
Out-of-school suspension 0.055** 0.060*** 0.056** 0.062*** 
 (0.025) (0.016) (0.027) (0.019) 
7th grade     
Disciplinary incident −0.004 0.013 0.017 0.037 
 (0.022) (0.024) (0.033) (0.033) 
In-school suspension −0.002 0.005 0.014 0.022 
 (0.012) (0.011) (0.020) (0.020) 
Out-of-school suspension −0.008 0.004 0.009 0.028 
 (0.024) (0.028) (0.031) (0.034) 
8th grade     
Disciplinary incident 0.005 0.024* 0.017 0.032 
 (0.023) (0.013) (0.029) (0.020) 
In-school suspension 0.004 0.022 −0.016 0.003 
 (0.026) (0.019) (0.022) (0.019) 
Out-of-school suspension −0.0003 0.012 0.035 0.044* 
 (0.013) (0.018) (0.026) (0.024) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.329*** 0.319*** 0.314*** 0.322*** 
 (0.002) (0.006) (0.008) (0.007) 
21,712 21,712 87,924 87,924 
Cohorts 2003–2006 2003–2006 2003–2006 2003–2006 
Cohort FE Yes Yes Yes Yes 
Student covariates No Yes No Yes 
Within-school peer average No Yes No Yes 
LinearQuartic
(I)(II)(I)(II)
Score Range552020
4th grade     
Disciplinary incident 0.045*** 0.046*** 0.046** 0.050*** 
 (0.016) (0.009) (0.021) (0.014) 
In-school suspension 0.009 0.005 0.004 0.002 
 (0.008) (0.007) (0.012) (0.010) 
Out-of-school suspension 0.044** 0.046*** 0.050** 0.054*** 
 (0.020) (0.015) (0.022) (0.016) 
5th grade     
Disciplinary incident 0.055*** 0.056*** 0.065*** 0.063*** 
 (0.021) (0.016) (0.026) (0.020) 
In-school suspension 0.046*** 0.047*** 0.053*** 0.053*** 
 (0.014) (0.013) (0.020) (0.018) 
Out-of-school suspension 0.023** 0.026*** 0.018 0.021* 
 (0.011) (0.008) (0.016) (0.012) 
6th grade     
Disciplinary incident 0.051 0.059** 0.025 0.031 
 (0.042) (0.030) (0.046) (0.034) 
In-school suspension 0.008 0.016 −0.027 −0.019* 
 (0.020) (0.020) (0.019) (0.011) 
Out-of-school suspension 0.055** 0.060*** 0.056** 0.062*** 
 (0.025) (0.016) (0.027) (0.019) 
7th grade     
Disciplinary incident −0.004 0.013 0.017 0.037 
 (0.022) (0.024) (0.033) (0.033) 
In-school suspension −0.002 0.005 0.014 0.022 
 (0.012) (0.011) (0.020) (0.020) 
Out-of-school suspension −0.008 0.004 0.009 0.028 
 (0.024) (0.028) (0.031) (0.034) 
8th grade     
Disciplinary incident 0.005 0.024* 0.017 0.032 
 (0.023) (0.013) (0.029) (0.020) 
In-school suspension 0.004 0.022 −0.016 0.003 
 (0.026) (0.019) (0.022) (0.019) 
Out-of-school suspension −0.0003 0.012 0.035 0.044* 
 (0.013) (0.018) (0.026) (0.024) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.329*** 0.319*** 0.314*** 0.322*** 
 (0.002) (0.006) (0.008) (0.007) 
21,712 21,712 87,924 87,924 
Cohorts 2003–2006 2003–2006 2003–2006 2003–2006 
Cohort FE Yes Yes Yes Yes 
Student covariates No Yes No Yes 
Within-school peer average No Yes No Yes 

Notes: Robust standard errors, clustered at the relative reading score level, are given in parentheses. Discontinuity estimates are obtained parametrically using the specified polynomial order and the score range. Columns labeled as (I) present the estimates from the base specification in equations 4a and 4b, with the addition of cohort fixed effects, and the columns labeled as (II) add student covariates and within-school peer averages to the estimation.

*Statistical significance at 10%; **statistical significance at 5%; ***statistical significance at 1%.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal