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Table 6. 
Early Grade Retention and Student Characteristics
LinearQuartic
Score Range/Bandwidth520
Current year   
Disciplinary incident −0.012 −0.034 
 (0.023) (0.023) 
In-school suspension 0.002 −0.006 
 (0.011) (0.011) 
Out-of-school suspension −0.011 −0.021 
 (0.015) (0.018) 
Prior year   
Disciplinary incident −0.005 −0.007 
 (0.007) (0.010) 
In-school suspension −0.015* −0.019 
 (0.009) (0.016) 
Out-of-school suspension −0.004 −0.005 
 (0.005) (0.006) 
Limited English proficiency 0.019 0.025 
 (0.012) (0.015) 
Special education 0.002 −0.014 
 (0.012) (0.021) 
FRPL eligible 0.003 −0.004 
 (0.017) (0.018) 
Male −0.050*** −0.043*** 
 (0.013) (0.015) 
Age in 3rd grade (in months) 0.572*** 0.392 
 (0.220) (0.282) 
FCAT Math score: 3rd grade 0.006 0.070 
 (0.022) (0.045) 
White −0.020 0.001 
 (0.029) (0.035) 
Black −0.009 −0.020 
 (0.009) (0.020) 
Hispanic 0.033 0.022 
 (0.030) (0.042) 
Asian −0.016*** −0.023*** 
 (0.004) (0.005) 
Foreign born 0.027 0.004 
 (0.021) (0.021) 
English not native 0.035 0.027 
 (0.022) (0.027) 
Peer incident rate   
1 year later −0.0003 0.0009 
 (0.002) (0.003) 
2 years later −0.0002 0.0005 
 (0.003) (0.003) 
3 years later −0.110*** −0.101*** 
 (0.007) (0.006) 
4 years later −0.007 −0.008 
 (0.005) (0.006) 
5 years later 0.001 −0.004 
 (0.008) (0.009) 
LinearQuartic
Score Range/Bandwidth520
Current year   
Disciplinary incident −0.012 −0.034 
 (0.023) (0.023) 
In-school suspension 0.002 −0.006 
 (0.011) (0.011) 
Out-of-school suspension −0.011 −0.021 
 (0.015) (0.018) 
Prior year   
Disciplinary incident −0.005 −0.007 
 (0.007) (0.010) 
In-school suspension −0.015* −0.019 
 (0.009) (0.016) 
Out-of-school suspension −0.004 −0.005 
 (0.005) (0.006) 
Limited English proficiency 0.019 0.025 
 (0.012) (0.015) 
Special education 0.002 −0.014 
 (0.012) (0.021) 
FRPL eligible 0.003 −0.004 
 (0.017) (0.018) 
Male −0.050*** −0.043*** 
 (0.013) (0.015) 
Age in 3rd grade (in months) 0.572*** 0.392 
 (0.220) (0.282) 
FCAT Math score: 3rd grade 0.006 0.070 
 (0.022) (0.045) 
White −0.020 0.001 
 (0.029) (0.035) 
Black −0.009 −0.020 
 (0.009) (0.020) 
Hispanic 0.033 0.022 
 (0.030) (0.042) 
Asian −0.016*** −0.023*** 
 (0.004) (0.005) 
Foreign born 0.027 0.004 
 (0.021) (0.021) 
English not native 0.035 0.027 
 (0.022) (0.027) 
Peer incident rate   
1 year later −0.0003 0.0009 
 (0.002) (0.003) 
2 years later −0.0002 0.0005 
 (0.003) (0.003) 
3 years later −0.110*** −0.101*** 
 (0.007) (0.006) 
4 years later −0.007 −0.008 
 (0.005) (0.006) 
5 years later 0.001 −0.004 
 (0.008) (0.009) 

Notes: Robust standard errors, clustered relative reading score level, are given in parentheses. Discontinuity estimates are obtained parametrically using the specified polynomial order and the score range. Both specifications include the cohort fixed effects.

*Statistical significance at 10%; ***statistical significance at 1%.

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