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Table 7. 
Early Grade Retention and Attrition
LinearQuartic
Score Range/Bandwidth520
Left at the end of the   
Current year 0.0006 −0.006 
 (0.005) (0.005) 
First year after 0.009 0.011 
 (0.008) (0.009) 
Second year after 0.008 0.011 
 (0.013) (0.012) 
Third year after 0.009 0.021*** 
 (0.008) (0.007) 
LinearQuartic
Score Range/Bandwidth520
Left at the end of the   
Current year 0.0006 −0.006 
 (0.005) (0.005) 
First year after 0.009 0.011 
 (0.008) (0.009) 
Second year after 0.008 0.011 
 (0.013) (0.012) 
Third year after 0.009 0.021*** 
 (0.008) (0.007) 

Notes: Robust standard errors, clustered at the relative reading score level, are given in parentheses. Discontinuity estimates are obtained parametrically using the specified polynomial order and the score range. Both specifications include the cohort fixed effects.

***Statistical significance at 1%.

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