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Table 10. 
Early Grade Retention and Misbehavior Subgroup Analysis
LinearQuartic
Score Range/Bandwidth520
Incident within two years   
All 0.053*** 0.071*** 
 (0.011) (0.015) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.320*** 0.322*** 
 (0.007) (0.008) 
N 44,247 180,066 
Socioeconomic status 
FRPL Eligible 0.062*** 0.081*** 
 (0.013) (0.019) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.329*** 0.329*** 
 (0.008) (0.010) 
N 32,991 132,875 
FRPL Ineligible 0.026 0.044* 
 (0.021) (0.023) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.295*** 0.303*** 
 (0.006) (0.005) 
N 11,256 47,191 
Race/Ethnicity 
White 0.048** 0.079** 
 (0.021) (0.026) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.288*** 0.290*** 
 (0.009) (0.009) 
N 13,250 54,858 
Black 0.076*** 0.101*** 
 (0.020) (0.027) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.353*** 0.352*** 
 (0.007) (0.009) 
N 15,718 62,613 
Hispanic 0.027* 0.031 
 (0.015) (0.023) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.322*** 0.328*** 
 (0.009) (0.011) 
N 13,007 53,135 
Gender 
Male 0.065** 0.100*** 
 (0.032) (0.033) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.328*** 0.331*** 
 (0.007) (0.010) 
N 23,891 96,815 
Female 0.039 0.037 
 (0.024) (0.028) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.310*** 0.312*** 
 (0.007) (0.008) 
N 20,356 83,251 
Time spent in current school 
Different school in 2nd grade 0.051 0.035 
 (0.032) (0.037) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.334*** 0.343*** 
 (0.010) (0.005) 
N 10,722 43,227 
Same school in 2nd grade 0.053*** 0.083*** 
 (0.020) (0.021) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.315*** 0.315*** 
 (0.009) (0.009) 
N 33,525 136,839 
Number of retained peers in school 
Fewer than 5 peers 0.097*** 0.164*** 
 (0.013) (0.051) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.177*** 0.173*** 
 (0.007) (0.007) 
N 13,737 56,741 
More than 10 peers 0.021*** 0.036** 
 (0.008) (0.023) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.433*** 0.443*** 
 (0.010) (0.011) 
N 20,129 80,361 
LinearQuartic
Score Range/Bandwidth520
Incident within two years   
All 0.053*** 0.071*** 
 (0.011) (0.015) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.320*** 0.322*** 
 (0.007) (0.008) 
N 44,247 180,066 
Socioeconomic status 
FRPL Eligible 0.062*** 0.081*** 
 (0.013) (0.019) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.329*** 0.329*** 
 (0.008) (0.010) 
N 32,991 132,875 
FRPL Ineligible 0.026 0.044* 
 (0.021) (0.023) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.295*** 0.303*** 
 (0.006) (0.005) 
N 11,256 47,191 
Race/Ethnicity 
White 0.048** 0.079** 
 (0.021) (0.026) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.288*** 0.290*** 
 (0.009) (0.009) 
N 13,250 54,858 
Black 0.076*** 0.101*** 
 (0.020) (0.027) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.353*** 0.352*** 
 (0.007) (0.009) 
N 15,718 62,613 
Hispanic 0.027* 0.031 
 (0.015) (0.023) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.322*** 0.328*** 
 (0.009) (0.011) 
N 13,007 53,135 
Gender 
Male 0.065** 0.100*** 
 (0.032) (0.033) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.328*** 0.331*** 
 (0.007) (0.010) 
N 23,891 96,815 
Female 0.039 0.037 
 (0.024) (0.028) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.310*** 0.312*** 
 (0.007) (0.008) 
N 20,356 83,251 
Time spent in current school 
Different school in 2nd grade 0.051 0.035 
 (0.032) (0.037) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.334*** 0.343*** 
 (0.010) (0.005) 
N 10,722 43,227 
Same school in 2nd grade 0.053*** 0.083*** 
 (0.020) (0.021) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.315*** 0.315*** 
 (0.009) (0.009) 
N 33,525 136,839 
Number of retained peers in school 
Fewer than 5 peers 0.097*** 0.164*** 
 (0.013) (0.051) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.177*** 0.173*** 
 (0.007) (0.007) 
N 13,737 56,741 
More than 10 peers 0.021*** 0.036** 
 (0.008) (0.023) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.433*** 0.443*** 
 (0.010) (0.011) 
N 20,129 80,361 

Notes: Robust standard errors, clustered at the relative reading score level, are given in parentheses. Discontinuity estimates are obtained parametrically using the specified polynomial order and the score range. All regressions control for the student covariates listed above, cohort fixed effects, and within-school average peer outcomes.

**Statistical significance at 5%; ***statistical significance at 1%.

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