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Table A.1. 
Early Grade Retention and Misbehavior First Stage Estimates
LinearQuartic
Score Range520
Below cutoff 0.319*** 0.322*** 
 (0.006) (0.007) 
Incident one year before 0.012 0.009** 
 (0.008) (0.004) 
Incident current year 0.012* 0.016*** 
 (0.007) (0.003) 
LEP −0.016*** −0.021*** 
 (0.006) (0.003) 
Special education −0.057*** −0.061*** 
 (0.004) (0.002) 
FRPL eligible 0.017*** 0.013*** 
 (0.004) (0.002) 
Male 0.024*** 0.022*** 
 (0.003) (0.002) 
Age in 3rd grade −0.004*** −0.005*** 
 (0.0001) (0.0001) 
3rd grade FCAT Math score −0.067*** −0.061*** 
 (0.002) (0.001) 
White 0.0001 0.01** 
 (0.009) (0.004) 
Black 0.001 0.007 
 (0.009) (0.004) 
Hispanic −0.007 0.002 
 (0.01) (0.004) 
Asian −0.018 0.002 
 (0.016) (0.007) 
Foreign born −0.026*** −0.025*** 
 (0.007) (0.003) 
English not native 0.002 0.0001 
 (0.006) (0.003) 
Cohort FE Yes Yes 
Student covariates Yes Yes 
42,393 178,248 
LinearQuartic
Score Range520
Below cutoff 0.319*** 0.322*** 
 (0.006) (0.007) 
Incident one year before 0.012 0.009** 
 (0.008) (0.004) 
Incident current year 0.012* 0.016*** 
 (0.007) (0.003) 
LEP −0.016*** −0.021*** 
 (0.006) (0.003) 
Special education −0.057*** −0.061*** 
 (0.004) (0.002) 
FRPL eligible 0.017*** 0.013*** 
 (0.004) (0.002) 
Male 0.024*** 0.022*** 
 (0.003) (0.002) 
Age in 3rd grade −0.004*** −0.005*** 
 (0.0001) (0.0001) 
3rd grade FCAT Math score −0.067*** −0.061*** 
 (0.002) (0.001) 
White 0.0001 0.01** 
 (0.009) (0.004) 
Black 0.001 0.007 
 (0.009) (0.004) 
Hispanic −0.007 0.002 
 (0.01) (0.004) 
Asian −0.018 0.002 
 (0.016) (0.007) 
Foreign born −0.026*** −0.025*** 
 (0.007) (0.003) 
English not native 0.002 0.0001 
 (0.006) (0.003) 
Cohort FE Yes Yes 
Student covariates Yes Yes 
42,393 178,248 

Notes: Robust standard errors, clustered at the relative reading score level, are given in parentheses. The results present the full first stage estimates for columns labeled (II) in table 3.

*Statistical significance at 10%; **statistical significance at 5%; ***statistical significance at 1%.

Table A.2. 
Early Grade Retention and Misbehavior Second Stage Estimates
Incident One Year LaterIncident Two Years Later
LinearQuarticLinearQuartic
Score Range520520
Retained 0.039*** 0.064*** 0.055*** 0.054*** 
 (0.009) (0.012) (0.011) (0.022) 
Incident one year before 0.219*** 0.201*** 0.181*** 0.191*** 
 (0.01) (0.005) (0.01) (0.005) 
Incident current year 0.262*** 0.264*** 0.234*** 0.24*** 
 (0.006) (0.003) (0.011) (0.004) 
LEP −0.004 −0.003 0.0001 0.002 
 (0.003) (0.002) (0.005) (0.002) 
Special education −0.004 −0.001 −0.006 −0.01*** 
 (0.004) (0.002) (0.004) (0.002) 
FRPL eligible 0.031*** 0.029*** 0.044*** 0.04*** 
 (0.003) (0.002) (0.004) (0.002) 
Male 0.055*** 0.056*** 0.074*** 0.067*** 
 (0.003) (0.001) (0.004) (0.002) 
Age in 3rd grade 0.002*** 0.003*** 0.003*** 0.003*** 
 (0.0003) (0.0001) (0.0002) (0.0001) 
3rd grade FCAT Math score −0.005** −0.003** −0.007*** −0.007*** 
 (0.002) (0.001) (0.001) (0.002) 
White −0.019*** −0.009*** −0.01 −0.013*** 
 (0.006) (0.003) (0.008) (0.004) 
Black 0.033*** 0.042*** 0.043*** 0.042*** 
 (0.005) (0.003) (0.007) (0.004) 
Hispanic −0.021*** −0.011*** −0.018** −0.023*** 
 (0.006) (0.004) (0.008) (0.004) 
Asian −0.028*** −0.024*** −0.032*** −0.034*** 
 (0.008) (0.004) (0.011) (0.006) 
Foreign born −0.014*** −0.011*** −0.013** −0.019*** 
 (0.005) (0.002) (0.005) (0.002) 
English not native −0.019*** −0.018*** −0.031*** −0.026*** 
 (0.004) (0.002) (0.003) (0.002) 
Cohort FE Yes Yes Yes Yes 
Student covariates Yes Yes Yes Yes 
Within-school peer average Yes Yes Yes Yes 
43,793 178,248 43,793 178,248 
Incident One Year LaterIncident Two Years Later
LinearQuarticLinearQuartic
Score Range520520
Retained 0.039*** 0.064*** 0.055*** 0.054*** 
 (0.009) (0.012) (0.011) (0.022) 
Incident one year before 0.219*** 0.201*** 0.181*** 0.191*** 
 (0.01) (0.005) (0.01) (0.005) 
Incident current year 0.262*** 0.264*** 0.234*** 0.24*** 
 (0.006) (0.003) (0.011) (0.004) 
LEP −0.004 −0.003 0.0001 0.002 
 (0.003) (0.002) (0.005) (0.002) 
Special education −0.004 −0.001 −0.006 −0.01*** 
 (0.004) (0.002) (0.004) (0.002) 
FRPL eligible 0.031*** 0.029*** 0.044*** 0.04*** 
 (0.003) (0.002) (0.004) (0.002) 
Male 0.055*** 0.056*** 0.074*** 0.067*** 
 (0.003) (0.001) (0.004) (0.002) 
Age in 3rd grade 0.002*** 0.003*** 0.003*** 0.003*** 
 (0.0003) (0.0001) (0.0002) (0.0001) 
3rd grade FCAT Math score −0.005** −0.003** −0.007*** −0.007*** 
 (0.002) (0.001) (0.001) (0.002) 
White −0.019*** −0.009*** −0.01 −0.013*** 
 (0.006) (0.003) (0.008) (0.004) 
Black 0.033*** 0.042*** 0.043*** 0.042*** 
 (0.005) (0.003) (0.007) (0.004) 
Hispanic −0.021*** −0.011*** −0.018** −0.023*** 
 (0.006) (0.004) (0.008) (0.004) 
Asian −0.028*** −0.024*** −0.032*** −0.034*** 
 (0.008) (0.004) (0.011) (0.006) 
Foreign born −0.014*** −0.011*** −0.013** −0.019*** 
 (0.005) (0.002) (0.005) (0.002) 
English not native −0.019*** −0.018*** −0.031*** −0.026*** 
 (0.004) (0.002) (0.003) (0.002) 
Cohort FE Yes Yes Yes Yes 
Student covariates Yes Yes Yes Yes 
Within-school peer average Yes Yes Yes Yes 
43,793 178,248 43,793 178,248 

Notes: Robust standard errors, clustered at the relative reading score level, are given in parentheses. The results present the full second stage estimates for columns labeled (II) in table 3.

**Statistical significance at 5%; ***statistical significance at 1%.

Table A.3. 
Early Grade Retention and Misbehavior: Alternative Specifications
LinearQuartic
(I)(II)(I)(II)
Score Range552020
1 year later     
Disciplinary incident 0.036*** 0.039*** 0.058*** 0.062*** 
 (0.010) (0.009) (0.013) (0.013) 
In-school suspension 0.013 0.009 0.017 0.017 
 (0.010) (0.007) (0.010) (0.011) 
Out-of-school suspension 0.040*** 0.037*** 0.056*** 0.044*** 
 (0.014) (0.011) (0.015) (0.015) 
2 years later     
Disciplinary incident 0.050*** 0.054*** 0.054*** 0.052*** 
 (0.013) (0.013) (0.018) (0.022) 
In-school suspension 0.030*** 0.032*** 0.039*** 0.037*** 
 (0.005) (0.004) (0.008) (0.010) 
Out-of-school suspension 0.025*** 0.027*** 0.024** 0.017 
 (0.009) (0.005) (0.012) (0.011) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.347*** 0.319*** 0.358*** 0.323*** 
 (0.008) (0.006) (0.008) (0.007) 
43,793 43,793 178,248 178,248 
Cohort FE Yes Yes Yes Yes 
Student covariates Yes Yes Yes Yes 
Peer incident rate at school Yes No Yes No 
School FE No Yes No Yes 
Includes LEP and SPED interacted     
with the below-cutoff indicator Yes No Yes No 
LinearQuartic
(I)(II)(I)(II)
Score Range552020
1 year later     
Disciplinary incident 0.036*** 0.039*** 0.058*** 0.062*** 
 (0.010) (0.009) (0.013) (0.013) 
In-school suspension 0.013 0.009 0.017 0.017 
 (0.010) (0.007) (0.010) (0.011) 
Out-of-school suspension 0.040*** 0.037*** 0.056*** 0.044*** 
 (0.014) (0.011) (0.015) (0.015) 
2 years later     
Disciplinary incident 0.050*** 0.054*** 0.054*** 0.052*** 
 (0.013) (0.013) (0.018) (0.022) 
In-school suspension 0.030*** 0.032*** 0.039*** 0.037*** 
 (0.005) (0.004) (0.008) (0.010) 
Out-of-school suspension 0.025*** 0.027*** 0.024** 0.017 
 (0.009) (0.005) (0.012) (0.011) 
First-stage discontinuity 0.347*** 0.319*** 0.358*** 0.323*** 
 (0.008) (0.006) (0.008) (0.007) 
43,793 43,793 178,248 178,248 
Cohort FE Yes Yes Yes Yes 
Student covariates Yes Yes Yes Yes 
Peer incident rate at school Yes No Yes No 
School FE No Yes No Yes 
Includes LEP and SPED interacted     
with the below-cutoff indicator Yes No Yes No 

Notes: Robust standard errors, clustered at the relative reading score level, are given in parentheses. Discontinuity estimates are obtained parametrically using the specified polynomial order and the score range. All regressions control for the student covariates listed above, cohort fixed effects, and within-school average peer outcomes.

**Statistical significance at 5%; ***statistical significance at 1%.

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