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Table 3. 
Distribution of District-Level Random Effect Estimates, Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Student Achievement, 2009–10
FloridaNorth Carolina
MathReadingMathReading
Standard deviation, in test scores 0.10 0.07 0.14 0.11 
Standard deviation, in weeks of schooling 7.4 7.3 10.3 11.3 
FloridaNorth Carolina
MathReadingMathReading
Standard deviation, in test scores 0.10 0.07 0.14 0.11 
Standard deviation, in weeks of schooling 7.4 7.3 10.3 11.3 

Notes: Standard deviations, calculated in student-level test-score standard deviations, are calculated as square root of variances reported in columns 2 and 5 of tables 1a and 1b. These statistics are converted to weeks of schooling by dividing by 0.485 in math and 0.36 in reading (the average learning gain for fourth- and fifth-grade students reported by Hill et al. [2008]) and multiplying by 36 (the number of weeks in a typical 180-day school year).

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