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Table 1. 
Descriptive Statistics for Project STAR Kindergarten Cohort
Mean (1)Standard Deviation (2)N(3)
Panel A: Age variables 
Expected age at the start of kindergarten 5.38 0.28 6248 
Age at the start of kindergarten 5.43 0.35 6248 
Above expected age at the start of kindergarten 0.059 – 6248 
Below expected age at the start of kindergarten 0.013 – 6248 
Relative age: age – average age of peers 0.000 0.35 6248 
Relative age: expected age – average age of peers −0.051 0.29 6248 
Relative age: expected age – average expected age of peers 0.00 0.28 6248 
Panel B: Demographic/socioeconomic variables 
Female 0.49 – 6248 
Black 0.33 – 6248 
Free/reduced-price lunch (in kindergarten) 0.49 – 6248 
Panel C: Other characteristics of kindergarten classmates 
Fraction female 0.49 0.12 6248 
Fraction black 0.33 0.41 6248 
Fraction free/reduced-price lunch (in K) 0.49 0.28 6248 
Panel D: Kindergarten teacher characteristics 
Black 0.17 – 6248 
Has MA 0.35 – 6248 
Has <2 years of experience 0.10 – 6248 
Panel E: Kindergarten class characteristics 
Small 0.30 – 6248 
Regular with side 0.35 – 6248 
Panel F: Outcome variables 
Standardized test score, end of kindergarten 0.00 1.00 5719 
Standardized test score, 8 years later 0.12 0.99 4436 
Ever retained, 8 years later 0.25 – 4508 
Took ACT/SAT 0.47 – 6248 
Mean (1)Standard Deviation (2)N(3)
Panel A: Age variables 
Expected age at the start of kindergarten 5.38 0.28 6248 
Age at the start of kindergarten 5.43 0.35 6248 
Above expected age at the start of kindergarten 0.059 – 6248 
Below expected age at the start of kindergarten 0.013 – 6248 
Relative age: age – average age of peers 0.000 0.35 6248 
Relative age: expected age – average age of peers −0.051 0.29 6248 
Relative age: expected age – average expected age of peers 0.00 0.28 6248 
Panel B: Demographic/socioeconomic variables 
Female 0.49 – 6248 
Black 0.33 – 6248 
Free/reduced-price lunch (in kindergarten) 0.49 – 6248 
Panel C: Other characteristics of kindergarten classmates 
Fraction female 0.49 0.12 6248 
Fraction black 0.33 0.41 6248 
Fraction free/reduced-price lunch (in K) 0.49 0.28 6248 
Panel D: Kindergarten teacher characteristics 
Black 0.17 – 6248 
Has MA 0.35 – 6248 
Has <2 years of experience 0.10 – 6248 
Panel E: Kindergarten class characteristics 
Small 0.30 – 6248 
Regular with side 0.35 – 6248 
Panel F: Outcome variables 
Standardized test score, end of kindergarten 0.00 1.00 5719 
Standardized test score, 8 years later 0.12 0.99 4436 
Ever retained, 8 years later 0.25 – 4508 
Took ACT/SAT 0.47 – 6248 

Notes: Sample includes individuals with nonmissing demographic/socioeconomic variables, kindergarten classmate characteristics, kindergarten teacher characteristics, and kindergarten class characteristics. See text for more details.

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