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Table 2. 
Predictive Power of Instrumental Variables for Background Characteristics
Coefficient (standard error):Coefficient (standard error):
Dependent variableExpected Age At Start of K (1)Expected Age at Start of K – Average Age of K Classmates (2)p on Joint Significance (3)Expected Age at Start of K (4)Expected Age at Start of K – Expected Average Age of K Classmates (5)p on Joint Significance (6)
 Demographic/Socioeconomic Variables 
Female  0.069 −0.055 0.653 0.001 0.013 0.826 
  (0.084) (0.081)  (0.096) (0.095)  
Black  0.000 0.006 0.809 0.026 −0.019 0.732 
  (0.038) (0.036)  (0.042) (0.041)  
Free/reduced-price lunch (in K) −0.101 0.048 0.018 −0.131 0.077 0.018 
  (0.074) (0.072)  (0.096) (0.092)  
 Other Characteristics of Kindergarten Classmates 
Fraction female −0.078 0.076 0.602 −0.026 0.024 0.878 
  (0.082) (0.079)  (0.096) (0.091)  
Fraction black  −0.011 0.012 0.666 0.021 −0.020 0.885 
  (0.035) (0.033)  (0.042) (0.040)  
Fraction free/reduced-price lunch (in K) 0.032 −0.034 0.428 −0.131 0.127 0.028 
  (0.072) (0.069)  (0.095) (0.091)  
 Kindergarten Teacher Characteristics 
Black  −0.217 0.201 0.279 −0.334 0.315 0.096 
  (0.169) (0.162)  (0.232) (0.220)  
Has MA  −0.514* 0.498* 0.180 −0.319 0.303 0.616 
  (0.289) (0.277)  (0.371) (0.352)  
Has <2 years of experience −0.045 0.042 0.974 −0.050 0.047 0.781 
  (0.220) (0.210)  (0.288) (0.274)  
 Kindergarten Class Characteristics 
Small  0.433 −0.404 0.379 0.594 −0.562 0.226 
  (0.360) (0.345)  (0.464) (0.440)  
Regular with aide 0.137 −0.128 0.920 0.136 −0.127 0.296 
  (0.387) (0.371)  (0.459) (0.435)  
Coefficient (standard error):Coefficient (standard error):
Dependent variableExpected Age At Start of K (1)Expected Age at Start of K – Average Age of K Classmates (2)p on Joint Significance (3)Expected Age at Start of K (4)Expected Age at Start of K – Expected Average Age of K Classmates (5)p on Joint Significance (6)
 Demographic/Socioeconomic Variables 
Female  0.069 −0.055 0.653 0.001 0.013 0.826 
  (0.084) (0.081)  (0.096) (0.095)  
Black  0.000 0.006 0.809 0.026 −0.019 0.732 
  (0.038) (0.036)  (0.042) (0.041)  
Free/reduced-price lunch (in K) −0.101 0.048 0.018 −0.131 0.077 0.018 
  (0.074) (0.072)  (0.096) (0.092)  
 Other Characteristics of Kindergarten Classmates 
Fraction female −0.078 0.076 0.602 −0.026 0.024 0.878 
  (0.082) (0.079)  (0.096) (0.091)  
Fraction black  −0.011 0.012 0.666 0.021 −0.020 0.885 
  (0.035) (0.033)  (0.042) (0.040)  
Fraction free/reduced-price lunch (in K) 0.032 −0.034 0.428 −0.131 0.127 0.028 
  (0.072) (0.069)  (0.095) (0.091)  
 Kindergarten Teacher Characteristics 
Black  −0.217 0.201 0.279 −0.334 0.315 0.096 
  (0.169) (0.162)  (0.232) (0.220)  
Has MA  −0.514* 0.498* 0.180 −0.319 0.303 0.616 
  (0.289) (0.277)  (0.371) (0.352)  
Has <2 years of experience −0.045 0.042 0.974 −0.050 0.047 0.781 
  (0.220) (0.210)  (0.288) (0.274)  
 Kindergarten Class Characteristics 
Small  0.433 −0.404 0.379 0.594 −0.562 0.226 
  (0.360) (0.345)  (0.464) (0.440)  
Regular with aide 0.137 −0.128 0.920 0.136 −0.127 0.296 
  (0.387) (0.371)  (0.459) (0.435)  

Notes: Each row in each of columns (1) to (3) and (4) to (6) represents a different regression. All regressions are based on 6248 observations and include school fixed effects. Standard errors are clustered on kindergarten classroom.

*Statistical significance at the 10% level.

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