Table 3.
Predictive Power of Instrumental Variables for Observation of Dependent Variables
Coefficient (standard error):Coefficient (standard error):
Dependent variable is dummy = 1 if observed:Expected Age At Start of K (1)Expected Age at Start of K – Average Age of K Classmates (2)p on Joint Significance (3)Expected Age at Start of K (4)Expected Age at Start of K – Expected Average Age of K Classmates (5)p on Joint Significance (6)
Standardized test score, end of −0.003 0.011 0.762 0.083 −0.073 0.376
kindergarten (0.052) (0.049)  (0.062) (0.061)
Standardized test score, 8 years later 0.045 −0.014 0.281 −0.002 0.033 0.293
(0.065) (0.063)  (0.076) (0.075)
Ever retained, 8 years later 0.041 −0.010 0.281 0.012 0.019 0.297
(0.065) (0.063)  (0.076) (0.075)
Coefficient (standard error):Coefficient (standard error):
Dependent variable is dummy = 1 if observed:Expected Age At Start of K (1)Expected Age at Start of K – Average Age of K Classmates (2)p on Joint Significance (3)Expected Age at Start of K (4)Expected Age at Start of K – Expected Average Age of K Classmates (5)p on Joint Significance (6)
Standardized test score, end of −0.003 0.011 0.762 0.083 −0.073 0.376
kindergarten (0.052) (0.049)  (0.062) (0.061)
Standardized test score, 8 years later 0.045 −0.014 0.281 −0.002 0.033 0.293
(0.065) (0.063)  (0.076) (0.075)
Ever retained, 8 years later 0.041 −0.010 0.281 0.012 0.019 0.297
(0.065) (0.063)  (0.076) (0.075)

Notes: Each row in each of columns (1) to (3) and (4) to (6) represents a different regression. All regressions are based on 6248 observations and include school fixed effects. Standard errors are clustered on kindergarten classroom.

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