Table 5.

. | Dependent Variable . | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

. | . | . | Eight Years Later: . | . | |

. | Average Test Score, End of K . | Average Test Score . | Ever Retained . | Took ACT or SAT . | |

. | (1) . | (2) . | (3) . | (4) . | (5) . |

Panel A: Two-Stage Least Squares— | |||||

Not Accounting for Lower Ability of Older Peers ^{a} | |||||

Age at start of K | 1.020^{***} | 0.910^{***} | 0.650^{***} | −0.156^{*} | 0.155^{*} |

(0.282) | (0.265) | (0.181) | (0.080) | (0.092) | |

Relative age in K classroom | −0.310 | −0.233 | −0.429^{**} | −0.033 | −0.151^{*} |

(0.265) | (0.250) | (0.167) | (0.075) | (0.086) | |

Root MSE | 0.900 | 0.855 | 0.890 | 0.405 | 0.465 |

Panel B: Two–Stage Least Squares— | |||||

Accounting for Lower Ability of Older Peers ^{b} | |||||

Age at start of K | 1.564^{***} | 1.407^{***} | 0.651^{***} | −0.327^{***} | 0.175 |

(0.429) | (0.394) | (0.251) | (0.118) | (0.107) | |

Relative age in K classroom | −0.847^{**} | −0.724^{*} | −0.430^{*} | 0.136 | −0.172 |

(0.407) | (0.374) | (0.248) | (0.115) | (0.106) | |

Root MSE | 0.901 | 0.856 | 0.890 | 0.405 | 0.465 |

Panel C: Ordinary Least Squares | |||||

Age at start of K | 0.423 | 0.396 | 0.271 | −0.107 | 0.069 |

(0.278) | (0.263) | (0.173) | (0.079) | (0.088) | |

Relative age in K classroom | −0.178 | −0.112 | −0.345^{**} | −0.043 | −0.132 |

(0.267) | (0.251) | (0.167) | (0.075) | (0.085) | |

Root MSE | 0.885 | 0.844 | 0.885 | 0.404 | 0.464 |

R^{2} | 0.230 | 0.302 | 0.219 | 0.146 | 0.147 |

Observations | 5,719 | 5,719 | 4,436 | 4,508 | 6,248 |

Additional controls^{c} | N | Y | Y | Y | Y |

School fixed effects | Y | Y | Y | Y | Y |

. | Dependent Variable . | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

. | . | . | Eight Years Later: . | . | |

. | Average Test Score, End of K . | Average Test Score . | Ever Retained . | Took ACT or SAT . | |

. | (1) . | (2) . | (3) . | (4) . | (5) . |

Panel A: Two-Stage Least Squares— | |||||

Not Accounting for Lower Ability of Older Peers ^{a} | |||||

Age at start of K | 1.020^{***} | 0.910^{***} | 0.650^{***} | −0.156^{*} | 0.155^{*} |

(0.282) | (0.265) | (0.181) | (0.080) | (0.092) | |

Relative age in K classroom | −0.310 | −0.233 | −0.429^{**} | −0.033 | −0.151^{*} |

(0.265) | (0.250) | (0.167) | (0.075) | (0.086) | |

Root MSE | 0.900 | 0.855 | 0.890 | 0.405 | 0.465 |

Panel B: Two–Stage Least Squares— | |||||

Accounting for Lower Ability of Older Peers ^{b} | |||||

Age at start of K | 1.564^{***} | 1.407^{***} | 0.651^{***} | −0.327^{***} | 0.175 |

(0.429) | (0.394) | (0.251) | (0.118) | (0.107) | |

Relative age in K classroom | −0.847^{**} | −0.724^{*} | −0.430^{*} | 0.136 | −0.172 |

(0.407) | (0.374) | (0.248) | (0.115) | (0.106) | |

Root MSE | 0.901 | 0.856 | 0.890 | 0.405 | 0.465 |

Panel C: Ordinary Least Squares | |||||

Age at start of K | 0.423 | 0.396 | 0.271 | −0.107 | 0.069 |

(0.278) | (0.263) | (0.173) | (0.079) | (0.088) | |

Relative age in K classroom | −0.178 | −0.112 | −0.345^{**} | −0.043 | −0.132 |

(0.267) | (0.251) | (0.167) | (0.075) | (0.085) | |

Root MSE | 0.885 | 0.844 | 0.885 | 0.404 | 0.464 |

R^{2} | 0.230 | 0.302 | 0.219 | 0.146 | 0.147 |

Observations | 5,719 | 5,719 | 4,436 | 4,508 | 6,248 |

Additional controls^{c} | N | Y | Y | Y | Y |

School fixed effects | Y | Y | Y | Y | Y |

*Notes:* Each column and panel of the table presents estimates from a different regression. Test scores are standardized to have a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one using all available data. Standard errors (in parentheses) are clustered on kindergarten classroom.

^{a}The instrument for a child's age at the start of kindergarten is his expected age given his birthday and the 30 September kindergarten entry cutoff birthdate in Tennessee. The instrument for a child's relative age is his expected age − average age of his kindergarten classmates.

^{b}The instrument for a child's age at the start of kindergarten is his expected age given his birthday and the 30 September kindergarten entry cutoff birthdate in Tennessee. The instrument for a child's relative age is his expected age − average *expected* age of his kindergarten classmates.

^{c}Dummies for whether child is female, black, or received free/reduced-price lunch in K; fractions of K classmates with these characteristics; whether the kindergarten teacher is black, has an MA, or has 0 to 1 years of experience; and dummies for whether kindergarten class is small or regular sized with teacher's aide.

^{*}Statistical significance at 10% level; ^{**}statistical significance at the 5% level; ^{***}statistical significance at the 1% level.

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