Skip to Main Content
Table 6. 
Two-Stage Least Squares Estimates of the Impacts of Relative Age, by Gender
Dependent Variable
Eight Years Later:
Average Score End of K (1)Average Score (2)Retained in Any Grade (3)Took ACT or SAT (4)
 Panel A: Boys 
Mean of dependent variable −0.089 0.021 0.327 0.401 
TSLS coefficients:     
Age at start of kindergarten 0.809** 0.971*** −0.397*** 0.209* 
 (0.329) (0.289) (0.124) (0.111) 
Relative age in K classroom −0.171 −0.622** 0.118 −0.147 
 (0.303) (0.254) (0.117) (0.101) 
Root MSE 0.842 0.978 0.445 0.463 
Observations 2,936 2,191 2,234 3,213 
 Panel B: Girls 
Mean of dependent variable 0.098 0.221 0.175 0.549 
TSLS coefficients:     
Age at start of kindergarten 0.992*** 0.428** 0.049 0.100 
 (0.303) (0.209) (0.103) (0.122) 
Relative age in K classroom −0.288 −0.310 −0.162* −0.151 
 (0.288) (0.195) (0.095) (0.119) 
Root MSE 0.867 0.798 0.361 0.468 
Observations 2,783 2,245 2,274 3,035 
p for age: male = female 0.291 0.011 0.002 0.147 
p for rel. age: male = female 0.920 0.071 0.120 0.477 
Dependent Variable
Eight Years Later:
Average Score End of K (1)Average Score (2)Retained in Any Grade (3)Took ACT or SAT (4)
 Panel A: Boys 
Mean of dependent variable −0.089 0.021 0.327 0.401 
TSLS coefficients:     
Age at start of kindergarten 0.809** 0.971*** −0.397*** 0.209* 
 (0.329) (0.289) (0.124) (0.111) 
Relative age in K classroom −0.171 −0.622** 0.118 −0.147 
 (0.303) (0.254) (0.117) (0.101) 
Root MSE 0.842 0.978 0.445 0.463 
Observations 2,936 2,191 2,234 3,213 
 Panel B: Girls 
Mean of dependent variable 0.098 0.221 0.175 0.549 
TSLS coefficients:     
Age at start of kindergarten 0.992*** 0.428** 0.049 0.100 
 (0.303) (0.209) (0.103) (0.122) 
Relative age in K classroom −0.288 −0.310 −0.162* −0.151 
 (0.288) (0.195) (0.095) (0.119) 
Root MSE 0.867 0.798 0.361 0.468 
Observations 2,783 2,245 2,274 3,035 
p for age: male = female 0.291 0.011 0.002 0.147 
p for rel. age: male = female 0.920 0.071 0.120 0.477 

Notes: Each column and panel of the table presents estimates from a different regression. All models are estimated using two-stage least squares and are based on the specification presented in the final four columns of table 5, panel A. Thus, the models include the full set of controls; age at the start of kindergarten is instrumented with expected age at the start of kindergarten; and relative age is instrumented with own expected age − average age of kindergarten classmates. Standard errors (in parentheses) are clustered on kindergarten classroom.

*Statistical significance at 10% level; **statistical significance at the 5% level; ***statistical significance at the 1% level.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal