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Table 4. 
Effect of Charters on Log Sale Prices for Los Angeles County
Los Angeles County
Number of ChartersCharter Seats as Percentage of Enrollment
(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)(vi)
A. Distance Gradient       
0–0.5 miles −0.00725 −0.0353*** −0.00543 0.0741* 0.00648 −0.00134 
 (0.0131) (0.00800) (0.00827) (0.0438) (0.0249) (0.0194) 
0.5–1 mile 0.00858 −0.0253*** 0.000950 0.117** −0.0166 −0.0128 
 (0.00748) (0.00609) (0.00476) (0.0564) (0.0270) (0.0195) 
1–1.5 miles 0.0252*** −0.0149*** 0.00223 0.140** −0.0442* −0.0123 
 (0.00578) (0.00387) (0.00313) (0.0616) (0.0268) (0.0239) 
1.5–2 miles 0.0239*** −0.00460 −0.00110 0.120 −0.0217 −0.00470 
 (0.00494) (0.00309) (0.00279) (0.0770) (0.0340) (0.0255) 
B. Condensed 0–2 Miles       
0–2 miles 0.0193*** −0.0101*** −0.00010 0.328*** −0.0301 −0.00750 
 (0.00321) (0.00255) (0.00207) (0.112) (0.0609) (0.0544) 
Observations 158,211 158,211 158,211 158,211 158,211 158,211 
Housing characteristics 
School characteristics 
School fixed effects 
Census-block fixed effects 
Los Angeles County
Number of ChartersCharter Seats as Percentage of Enrollment
(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)(vi)
A. Distance Gradient       
0–0.5 miles −0.00725 −0.0353*** −0.00543 0.0741* 0.00648 −0.00134 
 (0.0131) (0.00800) (0.00827) (0.0438) (0.0249) (0.0194) 
0.5–1 mile 0.00858 −0.0253*** 0.000950 0.117** −0.0166 −0.0128 
 (0.00748) (0.00609) (0.00476) (0.0564) (0.0270) (0.0195) 
1–1.5 miles 0.0252*** −0.0149*** 0.00223 0.140** −0.0442* −0.0123 
 (0.00578) (0.00387) (0.00313) (0.0616) (0.0268) (0.0239) 
1.5–2 miles 0.0239*** −0.00460 −0.00110 0.120 −0.0217 −0.00470 
 (0.00494) (0.00309) (0.00279) (0.0770) (0.0340) (0.0255) 
B. Condensed 0–2 Miles       
0–2 miles 0.0193*** −0.0101*** −0.00010 0.328*** −0.0301 −0.00750 
 (0.00321) (0.00255) (0.00207) (0.112) (0.0609) (0.0544) 
Observations 158,211 158,211 158,211 158,211 158,211 158,211 
Housing characteristics 
School characteristics 
School fixed effects 
Census-block fixed effects 

Notes: Sample includes property sales from April 2009 through September 2011. The independent variable denotes either the number of charters in operation or the share of enrollment in operating charters as of the sale date in various distance rings from the property. Housing characteristics include number of bedrooms, bathrooms, square footage, and quality. School characteristics include API levels overall, lags and second lags of overall API scores, percent of students of each race, percent free lunch, percent gifted, percent English language learners, percent disabled, and parent education levels for elementary school zoned to the property in 2002. All regressions include month-by-year fixed effects. Robust standard errors clustered by elementary school zone in 2002 in parentheses.

*Significant at the 10% level; **significant at the 5% level; ***significant at the 1% level.

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