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Table 1.
Summary Statistics: Explanatory Variables
1990–911995–962000–012005–062010–11
StandardStandardStandardStandardStandard
VariableMeanDeviationMeanDeviationMeanDeviationMeanDeviationMeanDeviation
Enrollment 2,790 12,920 3,127 13,978 3,196 14,563 3,496 14,940 3,612 14,875 
Fraction special education 0.090 0.156 0.103 0.084 0.132 0.084 0.143 0.070 0.135 0.057 
Fraction eligible for free lunch 0.176 0.197 0.214 0.208 0.228 0.204 0.284 0.208 0.367 0.211 
Fraction reduced-price lunch eligible —- —- —- —- 0.073 0.057 0.082 0.054 0.081 0.056 
Fraction limited English proficient —- —- —- —- 0.032 0.093 0.042 0.102 0.029 0.064 
Fraction African American 0.056 0.142 0.066 0.158 0.072 0.170 0.071 0.159 0.070 0.155 
Fraction Asian American 0.013 0.033 0.014 0.036 0.016 0.041 0.019 0.044 0.019 0.044 
Fraction Native American 0.023 0.101 0.027 0.110 0.030 0.116 0.031 0.118 0.030 0.115 
Fraction Hispanic 0.063 0.151 0.068 0.156 0.084 0.170 0.101 0.184 0.123 0.196 
State formula aid per pupil $1,738 $1,176 $1,977 $1,236 $2,458 $1,525 $2,588 $1,959 $2,690 $6,836 
Federal aid per pupil $302 $473 $313 $572 $425 $659 $624 $1,001 $845 $1,230 
Court-ordered finance reform 0.332 0.471 0.406 0.491 0.539 0.499 0.625 0.484 0.651 0.477 
State limit 0.449 0.497 0.535 0.499 0.543 0.498 0.615 0.487 0.668 0.471 
Local limit 0.671 0.470 0.689 0.463 0.761 0.427 0.796 0.403 0.858 0.349 
Downturn 0.127 0.333 0.034 0.180 0.401 0.490 0.072 0.258 0.083 0.276 
Observations 13,882 13,861 14,265 13,704 13,257 
1990–911995–962000–012005–062010–11
StandardStandardStandardStandardStandard
VariableMeanDeviationMeanDeviationMeanDeviationMeanDeviationMeanDeviation
Enrollment 2,790 12,920 3,127 13,978 3,196 14,563 3,496 14,940 3,612 14,875 
Fraction special education 0.090 0.156 0.103 0.084 0.132 0.084 0.143 0.070 0.135 0.057 
Fraction eligible for free lunch 0.176 0.197 0.214 0.208 0.228 0.204 0.284 0.208 0.367 0.211 
Fraction reduced-price lunch eligible —- —- —- —- 0.073 0.057 0.082 0.054 0.081 0.056 
Fraction limited English proficient —- —- —- —- 0.032 0.093 0.042 0.102 0.029 0.064 
Fraction African American 0.056 0.142 0.066 0.158 0.072 0.170 0.071 0.159 0.070 0.155 
Fraction Asian American 0.013 0.033 0.014 0.036 0.016 0.041 0.019 0.044 0.019 0.044 
Fraction Native American 0.023 0.101 0.027 0.110 0.030 0.116 0.031 0.118 0.030 0.115 
Fraction Hispanic 0.063 0.151 0.068 0.156 0.084 0.170 0.101 0.184 0.123 0.196 
State formula aid per pupil $1,738 $1,176 $1,977 $1,236 $2,458 $1,525 $2,588 $1,959 $2,690 $6,836 
Federal aid per pupil $302 $473 $313 $572 $425 $659 $624 $1,001 $845 $1,230 
Court-ordered finance reform 0.332 0.471 0.406 0.491 0.539 0.499 0.625 0.484 0.651 0.477 
State limit 0.449 0.497 0.535 0.499 0.543 0.498 0.615 0.487 0.668 0.471 
Local limit 0.671 0.470 0.689 0.463 0.761 0.427 0.796 0.403 0.858 0.349 
Downturn 0.127 0.333 0.034 0.180 0.401 0.490 0.072 0.258 0.083 0.276 
Observations 13,882 13,861 14,265 13,704 13,257 
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