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In table 3, we shed light on the changes over time by examining the average test score gains of the three types of schools in two periods: the early period of charter schools (1999–2005) and the more recent period (2006–2012). The larger number of new charters entering the market in the early period relative to the later period reflects the rush to open charter schools in the early years before the cap was binding. In later years, as the state's charter school cap was approached, entry of new charter schools into the charter school market became less common.19

Table 3. 
Student Gains by Charter School Exit, Persistence, and Entry
Exiting SchoolsPersisting SchoolsEntering Schools
Reading, 1999—2005    
Mean gains −0.246 −0.028 −0.169 
Number of school years 408 40 
% of charter enrollment 0.67 94.55 4.77 
Reading, 2006—2012    
Mean gains −0.136 0.005 0.077 
Number of school years 12 601 13 
% of charter enrollment 0.54 97.83 1.63 
Math, 1999—2005    
Mean gains −0.078 0.006 −0.100 
Number of school years 408 40 
% of charter enrollment 0.67 94.55 4.77 
Math, 2006—2012    
Mean gains −0.043 0.051 0.090 
Number of school years 12 601 13 
% of charter enrollment 0.54 97.83 1.63 
Exiting SchoolsPersisting SchoolsEntering Schools
Reading, 1999—2005    
Mean gains −0.246 −0.028 −0.169 
Number of school years 408 40 
% of charter enrollment 0.67 94.55 4.77 
Reading, 2006—2012    
Mean gains −0.136 0.005 0.077 
Number of school years 12 601 13 
% of charter enrollment 0.54 97.83 1.63 
Math, 1999—2005    
Mean gains −0.078 0.006 −0.100 
Number of school years 408 40 
% of charter enrollment 0.67 94.55 4.77 
Math, 2006—2012    
Mean gains −0.043 0.051 0.090 
Number of school years 12 601 13 
% of charter enrollment 0.54 97.83 1.63 

Note: Entering schools become persisting schools after their first year being open, unless they exit.

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