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Figure A.1.

GPA Distribution.

Figure A.1.

GPA Distribution.

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Table A.1. 
Characteristics of Bottom Line's Encouraged and Discouraged Colleges
InstitutionSectorMain DegreeUndergraduate EnrollmentNet CostIn-State TuitionSix-Year Graduation RatePercent Receiving Pell Grant
Panel A: Encouraged Colleges        
Bentley University Private nonprofit BA 4,172 29,886 41,110 0.87 0.16 
Boston College Private nonprofit BA 9,465 33,070 45,622 0.91 0.14 
Boston University Private nonprofit BA 16,460 34,603 44,880 0.84 0.15 
Bridgewater State University Public BA 9,489 17,477 8,053 0.58 0.24 
Clark University Private nonprofit BA 2,312 23,415 39,550 0.81 0.21 
Fitchburg State University Public BA 4,148 12,849 8,985 0.50 0.34 
Framingham State University Public BA 4,255 17,552 8,080 0.51 0.28 
College of the Holy Cross Private nonprofit BA 2,878 32,118 44,272 0.91 0.16 
University of Massachusetts-Lowell Public BA 11,830 16,351 12,097 0.54 0.30 
University of Massachusetts-Amherst Public BA 21,672 19,087 13,443 0.73 0.25 
University of Massachusetts-Boston Public BA 11,786 11,741 11,966 0.44 0.38 
MCPHS University Private nonprofit BA 3,808 34,345 28,470 0.71 0.30 
Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts Public BA 1,483 14,837 8,525 0.57 0.45 
Northeastern University Private nonprofit BA 13,204 31,503 41,686 0.83 0.14 
Quinsigamond Community College Public AA 7,647 6,510 5,094 0.45 
Salem State University Public BA 7,134 15,420 8,130 0.46 0.33 
University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth Public BA 7,202 17,092 11,681 0.49 0.38 
Suffolk University Private nonprofit BA 5,535 27,507 31,716 0.55 0.29 
Wentworth Institute of Technology Private nonprofit BA 3,975 31,201 29,200 0.63 0.28 
Worcester Polytechnic Institute Private nonprofit BA 4,012 35,483 42,778 0.81 0.15 
Worcester State University Public BA 5,033 14,402 8,157 0.49 0.27 
Unweighted average   7,500 22,688 23,500 0.66 0.27 
Panel B: Discouraged Colleges        
Bay State College Private for-profit AA 1,196 25,440 19,748 0.27 0.51 
Becker College Private nonprofit BA 1,871 28,697 31,500 0.31 0.39 
Curry College Private nonprofit BA 2,794 30,561 34,715 0.45 0.26 
Fisher College Private nonprofit AA 1,733 30,797 27,575 0.39 0.58 
Lasell College Private nonprofit BA 1,667 25,316 30,000 0.53 0.32 
Mount Ida College Private nonprofit BA 1,261 27,772 29,377 0.40 0.39 
Newbury College Private nonprofit BA 961 24,111 28,950 0.31 0.50 
Nichols College Private nonprofit BA 1,260 26,673 32,370 0.47 0.35 
Regis College Private nonprofit BA 1,188 37,829 34,380 0.49 0.36 
Unweighted average   1,548 28,577 29,846 0.40 0.41 
InstitutionSectorMain DegreeUndergraduate EnrollmentNet CostIn-State TuitionSix-Year Graduation RatePercent Receiving Pell Grant
Panel A: Encouraged Colleges        
Bentley University Private nonprofit BA 4,172 29,886 41,110 0.87 0.16 
Boston College Private nonprofit BA 9,465 33,070 45,622 0.91 0.14 
Boston University Private nonprofit BA 16,460 34,603 44,880 0.84 0.15 
Bridgewater State University Public BA 9,489 17,477 8,053 0.58 0.24 
Clark University Private nonprofit BA 2,312 23,415 39,550 0.81 0.21 
Fitchburg State University Public BA 4,148 12,849 8,985 0.50 0.34 
Framingham State University Public BA 4,255 17,552 8,080 0.51 0.28 
College of the Holy Cross Private nonprofit BA 2,878 32,118 44,272 0.91 0.16 
University of Massachusetts-Lowell Public BA 11,830 16,351 12,097 0.54 0.30 
University of Massachusetts-Amherst Public BA 21,672 19,087 13,443 0.73 0.25 
University of Massachusetts-Boston Public BA 11,786 11,741 11,966 0.44 0.38 
MCPHS University Private nonprofit BA 3,808 34,345 28,470 0.71 0.30 
Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts Public BA 1,483 14,837 8,525 0.57 0.45 
Northeastern University Private nonprofit BA 13,204 31,503 41,686 0.83 0.14 
Quinsigamond Community College Public AA 7,647 6,510 5,094 0.45 
Salem State University Public BA 7,134 15,420 8,130 0.46 0.33 
University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth Public BA 7,202 17,092 11,681 0.49 0.38 
Suffolk University Private nonprofit BA 5,535 27,507 31,716 0.55 0.29 
Wentworth Institute of Technology Private nonprofit BA 3,975 31,201 29,200 0.63 0.28 
Worcester Polytechnic Institute Private nonprofit BA 4,012 35,483 42,778 0.81 0.15 
Worcester State University Public BA 5,033 14,402 8,157 0.49 0.27 
Unweighted average   7,500 22,688 23,500 0.66 0.27 
Panel B: Discouraged Colleges        
Bay State College Private for-profit AA 1,196 25,440 19,748 0.27 0.51 
Becker College Private nonprofit BA 1,871 28,697 31,500 0.31 0.39 
Curry College Private nonprofit BA 2,794 30,561 34,715 0.45 0.26 
Fisher College Private nonprofit AA 1,733 30,797 27,575 0.39 0.58 
Lasell College Private nonprofit BA 1,667 25,316 30,000 0.53 0.32 
Mount Ida College Private nonprofit BA 1,261 27,772 29,377 0.40 0.39 
Newbury College Private nonprofit BA 961 24,111 28,950 0.31 0.50 
Nichols College Private nonprofit BA 1,260 26,673 32,370 0.47 0.35 
Regis College Private nonprofit BA 1,188 37,829 34,380 0.49 0.36 
Unweighted average   1,548 28,577 29,846 0.40 0.41 

Notes: Panel A lists the colleges to which Bottom Line encourages students to apply. Panel B lists those colleges to which Bottom Line discourages students from applying. College characteristics are taken from the 2013 version of the IPEDS. Beneath each panel is the unweighted average of each characteristic across the given set of colleges. Averages weighted by undergraduate enrollment are very similar.

Table A.2. 
Covariate Balance Test
(1) Female(2) Low income(3) Hispanic(4) Asian(5) White(6) Other(7) ESL(8) LEP(9) Special education(10) Vocational Education
Panel A: 2010—14 Cohorts           
Eligible (BW = 1.5) 0.027 −0.010 −0.074** 0.031 −0.017 −0.016 0.035 0.026 −0.005 0.030 
 (0.043) (0.032) (0.033) (0.021) (0.019) (0.014) (0.037) (0.021) (0.023) (0.020) 
N 4,992 
Eligible (BW = 1.0) 0.025 −0.015 −0.047 0.014 −0.030 −0.021 0.023 0.005 −0.004 0.033 
 (0.052) (0.040) (0.041) (0.023) (0.020) (0.018) (0.049) (0.025) (0.026) (0.023) 
N 3,780 
Control mean 0.69 0.75 0.37 0.05 0.08 0.05 0.39 0.07 0.07 0.17 
Panel B: 2010—12 Cohorts           
Eligible (BW = 1.5) 0.016 −0.038 −0.077 0.025 0.013 −0.022 −0.031 0.033 −0.014 0.079** 
 (0.050) (0.039) (0.047) (0.023) (0.030) (0.026) (0.039) (0.025) (0.021) (0.035) 
N 2,730 
Eligible (BW = 1.0) 0.054 −0.056 −0.075 0.014 0.005 −0.028 −0.051 0.018 −0.001 0.093** 
 (0.054) (0.048) (0.057) (0.028) (0.029) (0.031) (0.047) (0.028) (0.021) (0.041) 
N 2,100 
Control mean 0.67 0.72 0.40 0.02 0.09 0.12 0.40 0.05 0.11 0.16 
(1) Female(2) Low income(3) Hispanic(4) Asian(5) White(6) Other(7) ESL(8) LEP(9) Special education(10) Vocational Education
Panel A: 2010—14 Cohorts           
Eligible (BW = 1.5) 0.027 −0.010 −0.074** 0.031 −0.017 −0.016 0.035 0.026 −0.005 0.030 
 (0.043) (0.032) (0.033) (0.021) (0.019) (0.014) (0.037) (0.021) (0.023) (0.020) 
N 4,992 
Eligible (BW = 1.0) 0.025 −0.015 −0.047 0.014 −0.030 −0.021 0.023 0.005 −0.004 0.033 
 (0.052) (0.040) (0.041) (0.023) (0.020) (0.018) (0.049) (0.025) (0.026) (0.023) 
N 3,780 
Control mean 0.69 0.75 0.37 0.05 0.08 0.05 0.39 0.07 0.07 0.17 
Panel B: 2010—12 Cohorts           
Eligible (BW = 1.5) 0.016 −0.038 −0.077 0.025 0.013 −0.022 −0.031 0.033 −0.014 0.079** 
 (0.050) (0.039) (0.047) (0.023) (0.030) (0.026) (0.039) (0.025) (0.021) (0.035) 
N 2,730 
Eligible (BW = 1.0) 0.054 −0.056 −0.075 0.014 0.005 −0.028 −0.051 0.018 −0.001 0.093** 
 (0.054) (0.048) (0.057) (0.028) (0.029) (0.031) (0.047) (0.028) (0.021) (0.041) 
N 2,100 
Control mean 0.67 0.72 0.40 0.02 0.09 0.12 0.40 0.05 0.11 0.16 

Notes: Robust standard errors clustered by distance from the GPA threshold are in parentheses. Coefficients come from regressions of the listed covariate on an indicator for GPA eligibility, distance from the GPA threshold, the interaction of those two, and high school class fixed effects, using a bandwidth (BW) of 1.5 and 1.0 GPA points. Panel A includes the high school classes of 2010—14, and panel B includes the classes of 2010—12. Covariates tested are all indicators, including in columns 7—10 English as a second language, limited English proficiency, special education, and vocational education status. Also listed is the mean value of each covariate for students with GPAs between 2.3 and 2.5.

**p < 0.05.

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