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We begin with a simple summary analysis of the medium-term relationship between mobility and academic performance, comparing movers with their stable peers. These models are most similar to what has been estimated in the previous literature and therefore serve as a good starting point for the discussion. As shown in the first two columns of table 2, students who make summer moves earn lower scores in both ELA (0.041) and math (0.072) in the years following a move, as do mid-year movers (0.031 and 0.045 in ELA and math, respectively), controlling for student characteristics and prior performance only.20 Introducing student fixed effects and moving to the difference-in-difference results (columns 3 and 4) substantially increases the magnitude of the coefficients: Summer movers perform 0.079 lower in ELA and 0.118 lower in math, and mid-year movers perform 0.039 lower in ELA and 0.131 lower in math than their stable peers. The finding that the negative relationship between mobility and performance is larger with the inclusion of student fixed effects suggests that movers as a whole are slightly better performing that non-movers (which is consistent with the descriptive results in table 1).

Table 2. 
OLS Results, Relationship Between Mobility and Performance, ELA and Math Exams, Renters Only
ELAMathELAMathELAMath
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Post-summer move −0.041*** −0.072*** −0.079*** −0.118***   
 (0.003) (0.003) (0.004) (0.004)   
Structural     −0.100*** −0.159*** 
     (0.004) (0.004) 
Nonstructural     −0.053*** −0.076*** 
     (0.007) (0.006) 
Post mid-year move −0.031*** −0.045*** −0.039*** −0.131*** −0.000 −0.078*** 
 (0.003) (0.003) (0.011) (0.011) (0.012) (0.012) 
Student characteristics 
Student fixed effects 
Observations 342,685 343,832 342,685 343,832 342,685 343,832 
Unique students 88,241 88,254 88,241 88,254 88,241 88,254 
R2 0.480 0.590 0.743 0.801 0.743 0.802 
ELAMathELAMathELAMath
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Post-summer move −0.041*** −0.072*** −0.079*** −0.118***   
 (0.003) (0.003) (0.004) (0.004)   
Structural     −0.100*** −0.159*** 
     (0.004) (0.004) 
Nonstructural     −0.053*** −0.076*** 
     (0.007) (0.006) 
Post mid-year move −0.031*** −0.045*** −0.039*** −0.131*** −0.000 −0.078*** 
 (0.003) (0.003) (0.011) (0.011) (0.012) (0.012) 
Student characteristics 
Student fixed effects 
Observations 342,685 343,832 342,685 343,832 342,685 343,832 
Unique students 88,241 88,254 88,241 88,254 88,241 88,254 
R2 0.480 0.590 0.743 0.801 0.743 0.802 

Notes: Robust standard errors in parentheses. Post-summer move is equal to 1 in all years after a student moves schools between June and October. Post-summer move is equal to 1 in all years after a student moves schools between October and June. Summer moves made after the completion of a terminal grade are structural moves. Summer moves made after the completion of a non-terminal grade are nonstructural moves. All models include controls for poverty, English proficiency, home language, participation in special education services, grade, residence borough, and year. Models in columns (1) and (2) also control for gender, race, and prior test scores. Models in columns (3) through (6) include student fixed effects. Sample excludes students living in single family homes, condos, or coops in year t.

***p < 0.01.

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