Table 2 presents the results of the SMSE estimation.31 The top portion, labeled “Teacher Side,” represents matching preferences that could reasonably be attributed to teachers. To generate fixed effect estimates, an education production function was estimated. A one standard deviation increase in teacher fixed effect for reading (mathematics) results in an approximately 0.17 (0.24) standard deviation increase in test scores. A school motivated to raise academic achievement by hiring more productive teachers should select, all else equal, a teacher with a higher fixed effect value.32

Table 2.
Estimates of Matching Parameters
Point Estimate95% Confidence
VariableTeacher SideInterval
Δ distance % −1 Super consistent
Δ urbanicity −4.1645 (−9.9742, 1.6452)
Δ classroom minority % −16.0079 (−21.7881, −10.2277)
Δ school minority % −12.4768 (−14.3188, −10.6348)
Δ classroom minority % × teacher minority 20.0798 (13.8278, 26.3318)
Δ school minority % × teacher minority 22.2767 (20.4347, 24.1187)
Δ level achievement −3.785 (−6.9693, −0.6007)
Level achievement × experience 24.1429 (20.7237, 27.5621)
Level achievement × math FE 27.6966 (24.3399, 31.0533)
Level achievement × certification 21.8939 (18.7164, 25.0714)
Level achievement × teacher minority −18.5917 (−21.8512, −15.3322)
ABC pressure × experience 15.7851 (11.9718, 19.5984)
ABC pressure × math FE 15.8741 (11.2621, 20.4861)
ABC pressure × certification 9.5156 (6.4938, 12.5374)
ABC pressure × teacher minority 11.7704 (7.4591, 16.0817)
Level × ABC × experience 20.6388 (17.5234, 23.7542)
Level × ABC × math FE 19.9136 (16.6636, 23.1636)
Level × ABC × certification 9.8859 (6.7801, 12.9917)
Level × ABC × teacher minority −17.9003 (−21.0763, −14.7243)
h (bandwidth) 1.127
Point Estimate95% Confidence
VariableTeacher SideInterval
Δ distance % −1 Super consistent
Δ urbanicity −4.1645 (−9.9742, 1.6452)
Δ classroom minority % −16.0079 (−21.7881, −10.2277)
Δ school minority % −12.4768 (−14.3188, −10.6348)
Δ classroom minority % × teacher minority 20.0798 (13.8278, 26.3318)
Δ school minority % × teacher minority 22.2767 (20.4347, 24.1187)
Δ level achievement −3.785 (−6.9693, −0.6007)
Level achievement × experience 24.1429 (20.7237, 27.5621)
Level achievement × math FE 27.6966 (24.3399, 31.0533)
Level achievement × certification 21.8939 (18.7164, 25.0714)
Level achievement × teacher minority −18.5917 (−21.8512, −15.3322)
ABC pressure × experience 15.7851 (11.9718, 19.5984)
ABC pressure × math FE 15.8741 (11.2621, 20.4861)
ABC pressure × certification 9.5156 (6.4938, 12.5374)
ABC pressure × teacher minority 11.7704 (7.4591, 16.0817)
Level × ABC × experience 20.6388 (17.5234, 23.7542)
Level × ABC × math FE 19.9136 (16.6636, 23.1636)
Level × ABC × certification 9.8859 (6.7801, 12.9917)
Level × ABC × teacher minority −17.9003 (−21.0763, −14.7243)
h (bandwidth) 1.127

Notes: Experience and fixed effects (FE) are converted to percentile values. Level achievement is average math proficiency rate at the school level.

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