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Normally, a pre-policy sample would be used to compare differences in parameter estimates across the two regimes. Lack of quality data before the bonus system implementation precludes this possibility. North Carolina completely discontinued its bonus system in 2009, however, while keeping in place the standardized tests that were used to generate the score to determine bonus receipt. Thus, it is possible to use a “post-post-policy” sample to analyze changes in matching behavior of teachers and schools.39 The last column in table 1 presents summary statistics for the 2009 sample, and table 3 presents the matching estimation results.

Table 3. 
Estimates of Matching Parameters (Control)
Point Estimate95% Confidence
VariableTeacher SideInterval
Δ distance % −1 super consistent 
Δ urbanicity 0.1356 (−4.1356, 4.4068) 
Δ classroom minority % −24.3885 (−30.4305, −18.3465) 
Δ school minority % −23.8055 (−29.6121, −17.9989) 
Δ classroom minority % × teacher minority −0.3647 (−2.0261, 1.2967) 
Δ school minority % × teacher minority 4.3775 (2.4769, 6.2781) 
Δ level achievement −7.8197 (−13.1034, −2.536) 
Level achievement × experience 24.937 (21.7359, 28.1381) 
Level achievement × math FE 25.3869 (21.814, 28.9598) 
Level achievement × certification 12.3977 (9.0765, 15.7189) 
Level achievement × teacher minority −7.126 (−10.6009, −3.6511) 
ABC pressure × experience 8.0599 (5.4071, 10.7127) 
ABC pressure × math FE −5.8735 (−8.3833, −3.3637) 
ABC pressure × certification −0.1077 (−2.6142, 2.3988) 
ABC pressure × teacher minority 3.184 (0.3469, 6.0211) 
Level × ABC × experience 24.3723 (21.9194, 26.8252) 
Level × ABC × math FE 23.9108 (21.505, 26.3166) 
Level × ABC × certification 9.0297 (6.6493, 11.4101) 
Level × ABC × teacher minority −12.5573 (−15.225, −9.8896) 
h (bandwidth) 1.127  
Point Estimate95% Confidence
VariableTeacher SideInterval
Δ distance % −1 super consistent 
Δ urbanicity 0.1356 (−4.1356, 4.4068) 
Δ classroom minority % −24.3885 (−30.4305, −18.3465) 
Δ school minority % −23.8055 (−29.6121, −17.9989) 
Δ classroom minority % × teacher minority −0.3647 (−2.0261, 1.2967) 
Δ school minority % × teacher minority 4.3775 (2.4769, 6.2781) 
Δ level achievement −7.8197 (−13.1034, −2.536) 
Level achievement × experience 24.937 (21.7359, 28.1381) 
Level achievement × math FE 25.3869 (21.814, 28.9598) 
Level achievement × certification 12.3977 (9.0765, 15.7189) 
Level achievement × teacher minority −7.126 (−10.6009, −3.6511) 
ABC pressure × experience 8.0599 (5.4071, 10.7127) 
ABC pressure × math FE −5.8735 (−8.3833, −3.3637) 
ABC pressure × certification −0.1077 (−2.6142, 2.3988) 
ABC pressure × teacher minority 3.184 (0.3469, 6.0211) 
Level × ABC × experience 24.3723 (21.9194, 26.8252) 
Level × ABC × math FE 23.9108 (21.505, 26.3166) 
Level × ABC × certification 9.0297 (6.6493, 11.4101) 
Level × ABC × teacher minority −12.5573 (−15.225, −9.8896) 
h (bandwidth) 1.127  

Notes: Experience and fixed effects (FE) are converted to percentile values. Level achievement is average math proficiency rate at the school level.

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