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An initial look at the relationship between having an own-race teacher and test score performance is presented in table 3. The average test score is never higher for white students with black teachers in any of the twelve grade–subject pairs; for black students, it is higher in two of the twelve categories if they have a white teacher (in the third grade). To see whether these findings may hold across the distribution, I perform Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests on the kindergarten test scores. I find that students in classes with a teacher of the same race have higher mathematics, reading, and word recognition test scores compared with those who do not (p = 0.000 for all tests).

Table 3. 
Average Test Scores by Race and Racial Match
White StudentsBlack Students
Teacher is Same RaceDifferent RaceTeacher is Same RaceDifferent Race
Kindergarten     
Mathematics 491.79 487.99 481.51 468.49 
Reading 440.77 437.36 432.74 426.49 
Word recognition 439.07 433.77 429.21 422.89 
Observations 3,655 183 725 1,131 
First grade     
Mathematics 545.52 525.20 521.39 511.32 
Reading 540.56 518.95 503.81 499.43 
Word recognition 529.34 513.80 502.61 498.70 
Observations 2,446 105 505 608 
Second grade     
Mathematics 596.64 593.09 569.64 565.89 
Reading 602.56 595.43 570.85 566.93 
Word recognition 601.72 599.65 576.50 567.31 
Observations 2,277 199 430 519 
Third grade     
Mathematics 633.04 620.39 607.63 609.35 
Reading 630.23 624.09 608.54 608.09 
Word recognition 627.80 620.17 602.88 604.01 
Observations 2,096 110 404 362 
White StudentsBlack Students
Teacher is Same RaceDifferent RaceTeacher is Same RaceDifferent Race
Kindergarten     
Mathematics 491.79 487.99 481.51 468.49 
Reading 440.77 437.36 432.74 426.49 
Word recognition 439.07 433.77 429.21 422.89 
Observations 3,655 183 725 1,131 
First grade     
Mathematics 545.52 525.20 521.39 511.32 
Reading 540.56 518.95 503.81 499.43 
Word recognition 529.34 513.80 502.61 498.70 
Observations 2,446 105 505 608 
Second grade     
Mathematics 596.64 593.09 569.64 565.89 
Reading 602.56 595.43 570.85 566.93 
Word recognition 601.72 599.65 576.50 567.31 
Observations 2,277 199 430 519 
Third grade     
Mathematics 633.04 620.39 607.63 609.35 
Reading 630.23 624.09 608.54 608.09 
Word recognition 627.80 620.17 602.88 604.01 
Observations 2,096 110 404 362 

Notes: Numbers calculated from sample data. The table displays the average scaled Stanford Achievement Test scores by subject, race, racial match, and grade.

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