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Table 4 presents the estimates on the coefficients of the variables obtained by estimating the system of equations described in section 2.17 I denote the estimated coefficients from the table as structural because they (and their covariance matrix) are required to calculate the DATT estimates.

Table 4. 
Structural Coefficient Estimates
MathematicsReadingWord Recognition
Kindergarten    
 11.40** 5.08** 5.10** 
 (2.52) (1.63) (1.87) 
First grade    
 4.39 8.78** 9.09** 
 (2.58) (2.57) (3.18) 
 12.00** 3.79 3.22 
 (2.68) (2.63) (3.18) 
Second grade    
 6.33** 4.94 4.55 
 (2.42) (2.65) (3.57) 
 −0.17 −1.39 1.71 
 (2.95) (3.04) (4.03) 
 6.24** 3.98 1.31 
 (2.77) (2.74) (3.19) 
Third grade    
 5.65 11.26** 12.76** 
 (2.99) (2.36) (3.97) 
 1.53 2.05 7.03 
 (2.81) (2.45) (3.91) 
 5.14 1.79 −0.19 
 (2.99) (2.74) (3.29) 
 −4.53 −2.38 0.81 
 (2.45) (2.51) (3.60) 
MathematicsReadingWord Recognition
Kindergarten    
 11.40** 5.08** 5.10** 
 (2.52) (1.63) (1.87) 
First grade    
 4.39 8.78** 9.09** 
 (2.58) (2.57) (3.18) 
 12.00** 3.79 3.22 
 (2.68) (2.63) (3.18) 
Second grade    
 6.33** 4.94 4.55 
 (2.42) (2.65) (3.57) 
 −0.17 −1.39 1.71 
 (2.95) (3.04) (4.03) 
 6.24** 3.98 1.31 
 (2.77) (2.74) (3.19) 
Third grade    
 5.65 11.26** 12.76** 
 (2.99) (2.36) (3.97) 
 1.53 2.05 7.03 
 (2.81) (2.45) (3.91) 
 5.14 1.79 −0.19 
 (2.99) (2.74) (3.29) 
 −4.53 −2.38 0.81 
 (2.45) (2.51) (3.60) 

Notes: The table contains the structural coefficient estimates of an own-race teacher on the variables in the system of equations described in section 3 that are to be used in the calculation of the DATT; see the text for details. Standard errors clustered at the level of the classroom are given in parentheses. Scaled test scores are used as the response variable. Observations are weighted using inverse probability weights; see section A.3 of the online appendix.

**Statistical significance at the 1% level.

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