Skip to Main Content

The case of having an own-race teacher in multiple grades is displayed in table 5. Multiple exposures are shown to be beneficial in many cases. Nonetheless, although the number of doses matters, so does their timing: Examining and in third grade, we see that the former sequence of treatments gives far more of a benefit than the latter in all subjects, even though both sequences give two exposures to a teacher of the same race. The difference between these treatment paths is statistically significant at the 5 percent level for mathematics and at the 1 percent level for reading and word recognition. Differences in timing do not always result in differences in outcomes—in second grade, there are no statistically significant differences in the dynamic average treatment on the treated estimates between and in any of the subjects. Another insight is that additional doses of treatment on a treatment path may not always yield additional tangible benefits. Comparing to , the former sequence does not appear to be that much more beneficial for all subjects because the estimated DATTs are well within each other's confidence intervals (that is, there is no statistically significant difference at the 5 percent level). Hence, the benefit of a teacher of the same race for mathematics, reading, and word comprehension in third grade may potentially be limited.

Table 5. 
Dynamic Average Treatment on the Treated Estimates
MathematicsReadingWord Recognition
Kindergarten    
 11.40** 5.08** 5.10** 
 (2.52) (1.63) (1.87) 
Observations 5,782 5,701 5,762 
First grade    
 16.38** 12.57** 12.31** 
 (2.74) (2.76) (3.15) 
 4.39 8.78** 9.09** 
 (2.58) (2.57) (3.18) 
Observations 3,958 3,865 3,359 
Second grade    
(1,1,1)(0,0,0) 12.40** 7.53* 7.57 
 (3.20) (2.95) (4.00) 
(1,1,0)(0,0,0) 6.16* 3.55 6.26 
 (3.09) (3.29) (4.29) 
(0,1,1)(0,0,0) 6.07 2.59 3.02 
 (3.64) (3.35) (4.45) 
Observations 2,336 2,338 2,348 
Third grade    
(1,1,1,1)(0,0,0,0) 7.80* 12.73** 20.41** 
 (3.41) (3.03) (5.10) 
(1,1,1,0)(0,0,0,0) 12.32** 15.10** 19.60** 
 (3.45) (3.42) (5.44) 
(1,1,0,0)(0,0,0,0) 7.18* 13.31** 19.79** 
 (3.34) (2.93) (4.53) 
(0,0,1,1)(0,0,0,0) 0.61 −0.58 0.62 
 (3.77) (3.19) (4.46) 
Observations 1,840 1,852 1,877 
MathematicsReadingWord Recognition
Kindergarten    
 11.40** 5.08** 5.10** 
 (2.52) (1.63) (1.87) 
Observations 5,782 5,701 5,762 
First grade    
 16.38** 12.57** 12.31** 
 (2.74) (2.76) (3.15) 
 4.39 8.78** 9.09** 
 (2.58) (2.57) (3.18) 
Observations 3,958 3,865 3,359 
Second grade    
(1,1,1)(0,0,0) 12.40** 7.53* 7.57 
 (3.20) (2.95) (4.00) 
(1,1,0)(0,0,0) 6.16* 3.55 6.26 
 (3.09) (3.29) (4.29) 
(0,1,1)(0,0,0) 6.07 2.59 3.02 
 (3.64) (3.35) (4.45) 
Observations 2,336 2,338 2,348 
Third grade    
(1,1,1,1)(0,0,0,0) 7.80* 12.73** 20.41** 
 (3.41) (3.03) (5.10) 
(1,1,1,0)(0,0,0,0) 12.32** 15.10** 19.60** 
 (3.45) (3.42) (5.44) 
(1,1,0,0)(0,0,0,0) 7.18* 13.31** 19.79** 
 (3.34) (2.93) (4.53) 
(0,0,1,1)(0,0,0,0) 0.61 −0.58 0.62 
 (3.77) (3.19) (4.46) 
Observations 1,840 1,852 1,877 

Notes: The table displays the dynamic average treatment on the treated estimates for exposure to a teacher of the same race for a given treatment path (). Standard errors clustered at the level of the classroom are given in parentheses. Scaled test scores are used as the response variable. Regressions as controls include class type, free lunch status, teacher years of experience and its square, whether the teacher has a graduate degree, and whether the teacher is black. Student fixed effects are included in the specification. Observations are weighted using inverse probability weights; see section A.3 of the online appendix.

*Statistical significance at the 5% level; **statistical significance at the 1% level.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal