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There is a moderate level of noncompliance with classroom type assignment in the Project STAR data. Although noncompliance was estimated to be only about 0.3 percent of the sample in kindergarten (Krueger 1999), a significant number of students moved between regular, regular with aide, and small classes in first grade and beyond. In the sample, approximately 5 percent do not comply in first grade, about 13 percent do not comply in second grade, and roughly 20 percent do not comply in third grade. If students nonrandomly switched class types based on the race of the teacher they would have been assigned, estimates of the teacher effects would be biased and inconsistent. To examine whether the results are sensitive to nonrandom switchers, I estimate the system of equations using only those that comply with their treatment assignment, the results of which are displayed in table 7.20 Despite the loss of a considerable number of observations, the results are largely similar to those from the full sample.21

Table 7. 
Own-race Teacher Effect on Achievement, Compliers of Treatment Assignment
MathematicsReadingWord Recognition
First grade    
 16.88** 11.42** 7.38 
 (3.91) (3.99) (4.33) 
 6.26* 10.43** 10.91** 
 (2.71) (3.05) (3.59) 
Observations 3,660 3,572 3,121 
Second grade    
(1,1,1)(0,0,0) 16.02** 8.83* 7.73 
 (3.58) (3.69) (4.57) 
(1,1,0)(0,0,0) 9.10* 7.49 8.40 
 (3.64) (4.10) (5.06) 
(0,1,1)(0,0,0) 6.29 0.14 −3.98 
 (4.15) (4.31) (5.67) 
Observations 1,996 1,997 2,005 
Third grade    
(1,1,1,1)(0,0,0,0) 12.26** 11.27** 15.19** 
 (3.62) (3.56) (5.81) 
(1,1,1,0)(0,0,0,0) 15.13** 15.09** 12.56* 
 (3.79) (4.06) (5.75) 
(1,1,0,0)(0,0,0,0) 10.98** 17.36** 16.96** 
 (3.84) (3.75) (4.92) 
(0,0,1,1)(0,0,0,0) 1.28 −6.09 −1.77 
 (4.15) (3.45) (4.78) 
Observations 1,457 1,468 1,487 
MathematicsReadingWord Recognition
First grade    
 16.88** 11.42** 7.38 
 (3.91) (3.99) (4.33) 
 6.26* 10.43** 10.91** 
 (2.71) (3.05) (3.59) 
Observations 3,660 3,572 3,121 
Second grade    
(1,1,1)(0,0,0) 16.02** 8.83* 7.73 
 (3.58) (3.69) (4.57) 
(1,1,0)(0,0,0) 9.10* 7.49 8.40 
 (3.64) (4.10) (5.06) 
(0,1,1)(0,0,0) 6.29 0.14 −3.98 
 (4.15) (4.31) (5.67) 
Observations 1,996 1,997 2,005 
Third grade    
(1,1,1,1)(0,0,0,0) 12.26** 11.27** 15.19** 
 (3.62) (3.56) (5.81) 
(1,1,1,0)(0,0,0,0) 15.13** 15.09** 12.56* 
 (3.79) (4.06) (5.75) 
(1,1,0,0)(0,0,0,0) 10.98** 17.36** 16.96** 
 (3.84) (3.75) (4.92) 
(0,0,1,1)(0,0,0,0) 1.28 −6.09 −1.77 
 (4.15) (3.45) (4.78) 
Observations 1,457 1,468 1,487 

Notes: The table displays the dynamic average treatment on the treated estimates for exposure to a teacher of the same race for a given treatment path () using the subpopulation of those that comply with their assigned class type. Standard errors clustered at the level of the classroom are given in parentheses. Scaled test scores are used as the response variable. Regressions as controls include class type, free lunch status, teacher years of experience and its square, whether the teacher has a graduate degree, and whether the teacher is black. Student fixed effects are included in the specification. Kindergarten estimates are not included because students are assumed to have complied in this initial grade; they would be identical to those in table 5. Observations are weighted using inverse probability weights; see section A.3 of the online appendix.

*Statistical significance at the 5% level; **statistical significance at the 1% level.

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