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Table 5.
Reduced-Form Estimates of the Effect of an Offer of Admission on High School Graduation Probability
Graduated (1)Enrolled Grade 11 (2)Earned Certificate (3)Math Score (4)ELA Score (5)Pass Both (6)
Higher income, IK bandwidth 0.133*** 0.055*** 0.056*** 0.128** 0.122 −0.009 
 (0.023) (0.019) (0.012) (0.056) (0.097) (0.046) 
Lower-income offer 0.04 0.01 0.04*** −0.02 −0.05 −0.02 
 (0.034) (0.028) (0.014) (0.067) (0.082) (0.051) 
N 1,756 2,291 2,606 2,473 2,501 1,756 
Higher income, bandwidth = 6 0.166*** 0.064*** 0.060*** 0.179*** 0.254** −0.033 
 (0.018) (0.016) (0.014) (0.053) (0.099) (0.052) 
Lower-income offer 0.08** 0.02 0.04*** 0.02 0.03 −0.03 
 (0.045) (0.038) (0.011) (0.060) (0.070) (0.063) 
N 1,023 1,023 1,023 903 913 1,023 
Higher income, bandwidth = 15 0.095*** 0.048** 0.057*** 0.131** 0.126 −0.019 
 (0.026) (0.018) (0.012) (0.056) (0.098) (0.040) 
Lower-income offer 0.01 0.01 0.04*** −0.02 −0.05 −0.03 
 (0.029) (0.025) (0.014) (0.068) (0.083) (0.043) 
N 2,606 2,606 2,606 2,336 2,364 2,606 
Higher income, IK bandwidth, controls 0.074*** 0.027 0.045*** −0.022 −0.008 −0.033 
 (0.024) (0.028) (0.012) (0.048) (0.084) (0.042) 
Lower-income offer 0.10*** 0.05* 0.04*** −0.02 −0.04 −0.00 
 (0.033) (0.027) (0.015) (0.091) (0.052) (0.054) 
N 1,756 2,291 2,606 2,473 2,501 1,756 
µ 0.664 0.858 0.028 −0.303 −0.207 0.154 
Graduated (1)Enrolled Grade 11 (2)Earned Certificate (3)Math Score (4)ELA Score (5)Pass Both (6)
Higher income, IK bandwidth 0.133*** 0.055*** 0.056*** 0.128** 0.122 −0.009 
 (0.023) (0.019) (0.012) (0.056) (0.097) (0.046) 
Lower-income offer 0.04 0.01 0.04*** −0.02 −0.05 −0.02 
 (0.034) (0.028) (0.014) (0.067) (0.082) (0.051) 
N 1,756 2,291 2,606 2,473 2,501 1,756 
Higher income, bandwidth = 6 0.166*** 0.064*** 0.060*** 0.179*** 0.254** −0.033 
 (0.018) (0.016) (0.014) (0.053) (0.099) (0.052) 
Lower-income offer 0.08** 0.02 0.04*** 0.02 0.03 −0.03 
 (0.045) (0.038) (0.011) (0.060) (0.070) (0.063) 
N 1,023 1,023 1,023 903 913 1,023 
Higher income, bandwidth = 15 0.095*** 0.048** 0.057*** 0.131** 0.126 −0.019 
 (0.026) (0.018) (0.012) (0.056) (0.098) (0.040) 
Lower-income offer 0.01 0.01 0.04*** −0.02 −0.05 −0.03 
 (0.029) (0.025) (0.014) (0.068) (0.083) (0.043) 
N 2,606 2,606 2,606 2,336 2,364 2,606 
Higher income, IK bandwidth, controls 0.074*** 0.027 0.045*** −0.022 −0.008 −0.033 
 (0.024) (0.028) (0.012) (0.048) (0.084) (0.042) 
Lower-income offer 0.10*** 0.05* 0.04*** −0.02 −0.04 −0.00 
 (0.033) (0.027) (0.015) (0.091) (0.052) (0.054) 
N 1,756 2,291 2,606 2,473 2,501 1,756 
µ 0.664 0.858 0.028 −0.303 −0.207 0.154 

Notes: Heteroskedasticity robust standard errors clustered by score are in parentheses. The estimates shown are intent-to-treat effects generated using ordinary least squares and include school-by-year fixed effects and a triangular kernel, with standard errors clustered at the admission score level. Estimates do not include covariates unless otherwise noted. ELA: English language arts; IK: Imbens and Kalyanaraman 2012.

*p < 0.10; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01.

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