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Table 3.
Coefficients and Standard Errors from Regressions Predicting Spring of Kindergarten Standardized Science Achievement from Preschool Participation
Spring of Kindergarten Science Achievement (Standardized)
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)
Preschool (center-based or state-sponsored) 0.420** 0.206** 0.0001 0.0106 0.00275 
 (0.0396) (0.0341) (0.0254) (0.0238) (0.0293) 
Center-based preschool 0.513** 0.263** 0.0147 0.0239 0.0141 
 (0.0407) (0.0348) (0.0284) (0.0251) (0.0314) 
State-sponsored preschool 0.173** 0.0839+ −0.0275 −0.0169 −0.0236 
 (0.0560) (0.0469) (0.0302) (0.0336) (0.0410) 
Head Start −0.238** −0.117** −0.106** −0.0968** −0.102* 
 (0.0408) (0.0389) (0.0288) (0.0333) (0.0405) 
Income controls  
Child, family, and contextual controls   
School fixed effects     
Classroom fixed effects     
Observations 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 
Spring of Kindergarten Science Achievement (Standardized)
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)
Preschool (center-based or state-sponsored) 0.420** 0.206** 0.0001 0.0106 0.00275 
 (0.0396) (0.0341) (0.0254) (0.0238) (0.0293) 
Center-based preschool 0.513** 0.263** 0.0147 0.0239 0.0141 
 (0.0407) (0.0348) (0.0284) (0.0251) (0.0314) 
State-sponsored preschool 0.173** 0.0839+ −0.0275 −0.0169 −0.0236 
 (0.0560) (0.0469) (0.0302) (0.0336) (0.0410) 
Head Start −0.238** −0.117** −0.106** −0.0968** −0.102* 
 (0.0408) (0.0389) (0.0288) (0.0333) (0.0405) 
Income controls  
Child, family, and contextual controls   
School fixed effects     
Classroom fixed effects     
Observations 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 

Notes: Robust standard errors in parentheses. All estimates account for the complex survey design of Early Childhood Longitudinal Study through the use of survey setting and weighting. The omitted category in all models is students who were not in a formal preschool setting—namely, those who were cared for by relatives, nonrelatives, or parents, and were not in a center-based, state-sponsored, or Head Start program.

**p < 0.01; *p < 0.05; +p < 0.1.

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