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Table 4.
Coefficients and Standard Errors from Regressions Predicting Spring and Fall of Kindergarten Standardized Math and Reading Achievement from Preschool Participation
Panel A: Spring of Kindergarten Mathematics and Reading Achievement
Spring of Kindergarten Math Achievement (std.)Spring of Kindergarten Reading Achievement (std.)
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)
Preschool (center-based 0.376** 0.178** 0.00624 0.0274 0.0379 0.342** 0.180** 0.0162 0.0327 0.0279
or state-sponsored) (0.0315) (0.0263) (0.0213) (0.0260) (0.0330) (0.0295) (0.0265) (0.0208) (0.0245) (0.0299)
Income controls
Child, family, and contextual controls
School fixed effects
Classroom fixed effects
Observations 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500
Panel B: Fall of Kindergarten Mathematics and Reading Achievement
Fall of Kindergarten Math Achievement (std.) Fall of Kindergarten Reading Achievement (std.)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
Preschool (center-based 0.514** 0.309** 0.123** 0.0981** 0.0814* 0.483** 0.305** 0.129** 0.122** 0.117**
or state-sponsored) (0.0417) (0.0347) (0.0253) (0.0245) (0.0317) (0.0356) (0.0314) (0.0237) (0.0246) (0.0319)
Income controls
Child, family, and contextual controls
School fixed effects
Classroom fixed effects
Observations 10,320 10,320 10,320 10,320 10,320 10,340 10,340 10,340 10,340 10,340
Panel A: Spring of Kindergarten Mathematics and Reading Achievement
Spring of Kindergarten Math Achievement (std.)Spring of Kindergarten Reading Achievement (std.)
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)
Preschool (center-based 0.376** 0.178** 0.00624 0.0274 0.0379 0.342** 0.180** 0.0162 0.0327 0.0279
or state-sponsored) (0.0315) (0.0263) (0.0213) (0.0260) (0.0330) (0.0295) (0.0265) (0.0208) (0.0245) (0.0299)
Income controls
Child, family, and contextual controls
School fixed effects
Classroom fixed effects
Observations 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500 10,500
Panel B: Fall of Kindergarten Mathematics and Reading Achievement
Fall of Kindergarten Math Achievement (std.) Fall of Kindergarten Reading Achievement (std.)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
Preschool (center-based 0.514** 0.309** 0.123** 0.0981** 0.0814* 0.483** 0.305** 0.129** 0.122** 0.117**
or state-sponsored) (0.0417) (0.0347) (0.0253) (0.0245) (0.0317) (0.0356) (0.0314) (0.0237) (0.0246) (0.0319)
Income controls
Child, family, and contextual controls
School fixed effects
Classroom fixed effects
Observations 10,320 10,320 10,320 10,320 10,320 10,340 10,340 10,340 10,340 10,340

Notes: Robust standard errors in parentheses. All estimates account for the complex survey design of Early Childhood Longitudinal Study through the use of survey setting and weighting. The omitted category in all models is students who were not in a formal preschool setting—namely, those who were cared for by relatives, nonrelatives, or parents, and were not in a center-based, state-sponsored, or Head Start program. std = standardized.

**p < 0.01; *p < 0.05.

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