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Table 5.
Coefficients and Standard Errors from Regressions Predicting Fall of Kindergarten Teacher-Rated Science Ability from Preschool Participation
Sense (1)Explain (2)Classify (3)Predict (4)Communicate (5)Physical Science (6)Life Science (7)Earth/Space Science (8)Composite (9)
Preschool (center-based 0.0820* 0.0783+ 0.0921* 0.0644 0.0894+ 0.0643 0.0867* 0.0869+ 0.133** 
or state-sponsored) (0.0354) (0.0445) (0.0406) (0.0412) (0.0457) (0.0408) (0.0370) (0.0508) (0.0510) 
Center-based 0.111** 0.118* 0.130** 0.0887* 0.108* 0.0963* 0.112** 0.0975+ 0.180** 
preschool (0.0383) (0.0458) (0.0434) (0.0447) (0.0500) (0.0440) (0.0402) (0.0557) (0.0563) 
State-sponsored 0.0168 −0.0127 0.000221 0.00790 0.0486 −0.00522 0.0297 0.0644 0.0372 
preschool (0.0467) (0.0607) (0.0553) (0.0552) (0.0562) (0.0536) (0.0491) (0.0670) (0.0647) 
Head Start 0.0546 0.0140 0.0465 0.0348 0.0488 0.00799 0.0444 0.0419 0.0694 
 (0.0446) (0.0532) (0.0513) (0.0517) (0.0549) (0.0486) (0.0448) (0.0596) (0.0616) 
Income controls 
Child, family, and contextual controls 
Classroom fixed effects 
Observations 7,500 6,490 6,050 6,320 5,960 6,510 6,770 4,270 3,390 
Sense (1)Explain (2)Classify (3)Predict (4)Communicate (5)Physical Science (6)Life Science (7)Earth/Space Science (8)Composite (9)
Preschool (center-based 0.0820* 0.0783+ 0.0921* 0.0644 0.0894+ 0.0643 0.0867* 0.0869+ 0.133** 
or state-sponsored) (0.0354) (0.0445) (0.0406) (0.0412) (0.0457) (0.0408) (0.0370) (0.0508) (0.0510) 
Center-based 0.111** 0.118* 0.130** 0.0887* 0.108* 0.0963* 0.112** 0.0975+ 0.180** 
preschool (0.0383) (0.0458) (0.0434) (0.0447) (0.0500) (0.0440) (0.0402) (0.0557) (0.0563) 
State-sponsored 0.0168 −0.0127 0.000221 0.00790 0.0486 −0.00522 0.0297 0.0644 0.0372 
preschool (0.0467) (0.0607) (0.0553) (0.0552) (0.0562) (0.0536) (0.0491) (0.0670) (0.0647) 
Head Start 0.0546 0.0140 0.0465 0.0348 0.0488 0.00799 0.0444 0.0419 0.0694 
 (0.0446) (0.0532) (0.0513) (0.0517) (0.0549) (0.0486) (0.0448) (0.0596) (0.0616) 
Income controls 
Child, family, and contextual controls 
Classroom fixed effects 
Observations 7,500 6,490 6,050 6,320 5,960 6,510 6,770 4,270 3,390 

Notes: Robust standard errors in parentheses. All estimates account for the complex survey design of Early Childhood Longitudinal Study through the use of survey setting and weighting. Sample sizes vary across this table as teachers had the option of not answering the question and instead noting they had not had the opportunity to observe the skill. The omitted category in all models is students who were not in a formal preschool setting—namely, those who were cared for by relatives, nonrelatives, or parents, and were not in a center-based, state-sponsored, or Head Start program.

**p < 0.01; *p < 0.05; +p < 0.1.

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