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Table A.1.
Control Variables for Full Sample and by Preschool Subgroup
Full SampleAny PreschoolCenter-Based PreschoolState-Funded PreschoolHead StartNo Formal Preschool
Family income       
$5,001 to $10,000 0.036 0.017 0.014 0.026 0.080 0.048 
$10,001 to $15,000 0.058 0.029 0.020 0.052 0.112 0.085 
$15,001 to $20,000 0.058 0.031 0.023 0.054 0.116 0.079 
$20,001 to $25,000 0.078 0.044 0.033 0.075 0.146 0.106 
$25,001 to $30,000 0.049 0.039 0.030 0.062 0.074 0.056 
$30,001 to $35,000 0.049 0.041 0.034 0.059 0.062 0.057 
$35,001 to $40,000 0.047 0.043 0.035 0.065 0.047 0.055 
$40,001 to $45,000 0.034 0.028 0.023 0.043 0.036 0.042 
$45,001 to $50,000 0.037 0.036 0.032 0.045 0.035 0.041 
$50,001 to $55,000 0.034 0.035 0.033 0.038 0.029 0.035 
$55,001 to $60,000 0.032 0.034 0.032 0.040 0.015 0.037 
$60,001 to $65,000 0.034 0.036 0.036 0.036 0.024 0.036 
$65,001 to $70,000 0.033 0.039 0.040 0.034 0.019 0.031 
$70,001 to $75,000 0.041 0.048 0.051 0.042 0.028 0.032 
$75,001 to $100,000 0.138 0.179 0.192 0.143 0.056 0.101 
$100,001 to $200,000 0.168 0.242 0.283 0.131 0.048 0.090 
$200,001 or more 0.044 0.063 0.077 0.025 0.013 0.025 
Primary parent employed full-time 0.418 0.469 0.473 0.457 0.410 0.325 
Primary parent employed part-time 0.210 0.226 0.236 0.202 0.194 0.186 
Secondary parent employed full-time 0.757 0.825 0.848 0.763 0.609 0.705 
Secondary parent employed part-time 0.075 0.061 0.057 0.072 0.101 0.087 
Child is female 0.485 0.482 0.489 0.465 0.474 0.497 
Primary parent education level       
9th—12th grade 0.072 0.037 0.021 0.078 0.100 0.124 
High school diploma or equivalent 0.200 0.133 0.105 0.205 0.327 0.261 
Vocational technical program 0.057 0.048 0.042 0.065 0.063 0.070 
Some college 0.272 0.271 0.258 0.305 0.314 0.253 
Bachelor's degree 0.219 0.296 0.332 0.200 0.073 0.147 
Some graduate/professional school 0.020 0.026 0.027 0.021 0.007 0.016 
Master's degree or higher 0.121 0.177 0.207 0.097 0.041 0.055 
Second parent education level       
9th—12th grade 0.085 0.043 0.028 0.084 0.166 0.122 
High school diploma or equivalent 0.289 0.228 0.188 0.333 0.411 0.342 
Vocational technical program 0.051 0.053 0.049 0.063 0.050 0.048 
Some college 0.213 0.223 0.223 0.222 0.182 0.211 
Bachelor's degree 0.174 0.236 0.276 0.130 0.074 0.108 
Some graduate/professional school 0.013 0.018 0.019 0.015 0.000 0.009 
Master's degree or higher 0.126 0.177 0.206 0.100 0.040 0.075 
Child weight (pounds) 47.040 46.860 46.430 48.000 47.900 46.930 
 (0.150) (0.180) (0.183) (0.289) (0.343) (0.244) 
Child height (inches) 44.780 44.830 44.830 44.810 44.750 44.690 
 (0.040) (0.042) (0.051) (0.066) (0.088) (0.067) 
Black 0.122 0.083 0.068 0.122 0.264 0.122 
Hispanic 0.215 0.146 0.110 0.242 0.310 0.298 
Asian 0.036 0.042 0.048 0.027 0.023 0.031 
Hawaiian 0.003 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.003 0.005 
Native American 0.008 0.007 0.003 0.018 0.014 0.007 
Two or more races 0.042 0.045 0.046 0.043 0.036 0.038 
Non-English language used at home 0.225 0.159 0.131 0.235 0.300 0.310 
Mother or child participated in WIC 0.483 0.327 0.246 0.541 0.821 0.602 
Number of siblings 1.479 1.376 1.366 1.403 1.514 1.657 
 (0.024) (0.024) (0.028) (0.037) (0.037) (0.037) 
Two-parent household 0.716 0.787 0.819 0.702 0.491 0.698 
One parent and one other adult 0.065 0.053 0.044 0.077 0.101 0.070 
Other guardians 0.021 0.015 0.011 0.026 0.040 0.023 
Parental expectations for child       
Graduate from high school 0.043 0.028 0.021 0.048 0.072 0.057 
Attend vocational or technical school 0.023 0.019 0.017 0.027 0.031 0.024 
Attend two or more years of college 0.117 0.097 0.083 0.134 0.164 0.130 
Finish four-year college 0.480 0.528 0.552 0.462 0.366 0.450 
Earn a master's degree 0.166 0.182 0.193 0.154 0.148 0.143 
Earn a doctorate 0.170 0.144 0.133 0.175 0.217 0.193 
Important child counts (1—5, essential to not important) 2.031 2.045 2.057 2.014 1.967 2.036 
 (0.015) (0.015) (0.017) (0.026) (0.023) (0.024) 
Important child shares (1—5, essential to not important) 1.632 1.590 1.580 1.616 1.693 1.680 
 (0.010) (0.012) (0.012) (0.021) (0.016) (0.015) 
Important child uses pencil (1—5, essential to not important) 1.868 1.837 1.838 1.835 1.899 1.911 
 (0.012) (0.015) (0.016) (0.029) (0.019) (0.016) 
Important child pays attention (1—5, essential to not important) 1.859 1.869 1.891 1.810 1.837 1.849 
 (0.012) (0.016) (0.016) (0.023) (0.020) (0.014) 
Important child knows letters (1—5, essential to not important) 1.902 1.889 1.897 1.868 1.887 1.935 
 (0.016) (0.019) (0.020) (0.029) (0.022) (0.018) 
Frequency of activities (1—4, not at all to every day)       
Sing 3.142 3.140 3.137 3.148 3.212 3.109 
 (0.013) (0.015) (0.018) (0.023) (0.027) (0.018) 
Art 2.779 2.772 2.775 2.763 2.780 2.792 
 (0.012) (0.015) (0.016) (0.026) (0.024) (0.017) 
Chores 3.275 3.275 3.276 3.271 3.300 3.261 
 (0.017) (0.017) (0.019) (0.027) (0.032) (0.032) 
Games 2.872 2.874 2.892 2.828 2.864 2.872 
 (0.011) (0.012) (0.013) (0.019) (0.023) (0.022) 
Talk about nature 2.314 2.333 2.342 2.307 2.302 2.284 
 (0.019) (0.023) (0.024) (0.029) (0.032) (0.026) 
Build things 2.476 2.489 2.502 2.454 2.430 2.477 
 (0.013) (0.015) (0.016) (0.031) (0.029) (0.024) 
Play sports 2.811 2.801 2.805 2.791 2.837 2.816 
 (0.012) (0.013) (0.014) (0.026) (0.028) (0.020) 
Number of books 90.770 107.500 114.100 89.710 62.280 73.820 
 (2.720) (3.103) (3.499) (3.996) (3.627) (3.483) 
Frequency use CD player (1—6, never to daily) 5.464 5.472 5.482 5.445 5.392 5.488 
 (0.026) (0.031) (0.035) (0.055) (0.044) (0.033) 
Read books to child (1—4, not at all to every day) 3.392 3.477 3.517 3.370 3.274 3.292 
 (0.018) (0.014) (0.015) (0.022) (0.024) (0.029) 
Read picture books (1—4, not at all to every day) 3.318 3.383 3.420 3.285 3.198 3.256 
 (0.016) (0.015) (0.015) (0.024) (0.029) (0.028) 
Attend PTA/PTO meetings 0.365 0.383 0.387 0.373 0.347 0.339 
Attended parent advisory group 0.125 0.124 0.123 0.128 0.131 0.124 
Volunteered at school 0.595 0.687 0.730 0.571 0.447 0.497 
 (0.013) (0.011) (0.012) (0.019) (0.017) (0.018) 
Participated in fundraising 0.690 0.742 0.760 0.695 0.610 0.634 
 (0.008) (0.010) (0.010) (0.020) (0.015) (0.013) 
Parent depression scale (1—4) 1.372 1.336 1.326 1.362 1.459 1.395 
 (0.007) (0.006) (0.007) (0.013) (0.012) (0.012) 
Parent not stressed scale (1—4) 3.061 3.057 3.058 3.054 3.062 3.068 
 (0.010) (0.010) (0.011) (0.022) (0.020) (0.018) 
Child spanked in last week 0.165 0.138 0.126 0.172 0.225 0.184 
Eat dinner together (no. days per week) 5.814 5.803 5.791 5.836 5.809 5.837 
 (0.027) (0.037) (0.042) (0.048) (0.043) (0.034) 
Eat dinner at regular time (no. days per week) 5.495 5.523 5.548 5.456 5.486 5.444 
 (0.033) (0.041) (0.045) (0.064) (0.052) (0.038) 
Child uses home computer 0.750 0.818 0.831 0.784 0.644 0.676 
Hours TV watched on weekdays 1.597 1.343 1.256 1.575 2.048 1.845 
 (0.034) (0.030) (0.029) (0.048) (0.058) (0.050) 
Visited zoo, aquarium, or farm 0.455 0.447 0.461 0.411 0.473 0.462 
Visited the library 0.601 0.630 0.654 0.565 0.580 0.559 
Visited art, museum, or historical site 0.350 0.381 0.400 0.331 0.324 0.306 
Attended play, concert, or show 0.413 0.445 0.457 0.415 0.377 0.369 
Dance lessons 0.190 0.243 0.270 0.171 0.108 0.132 
Organized athletic activities 0.533 0.650 0.692 0.536 0.386 0.388 
Clubs or recreation programs 0.130 0.159 0.167 0.137 0.089 0.095 
Music lessons 0.099 0.118 0.132 0.081 0.071 0.077 
Drama classes 0.023 0.029 0.031 0.022 0.018 0.015 
Art classes or lessons 0.089 0.105 0.111 0.090 0.073 0.068 
Performing arts programs 0.159 0.179 0.191 0.147 0.146 0.127 
Craft classes or lessons 0.114 0.129 0.133 0.117 0.092 0.096 
Neighborhood quality scale (1—3) 2.780 2.825 2.846 2.768 2.686 2.744 
 (0.010) (0.008) (0.009) (0.016) (0.015) (0.015) 
N 10,500 5,950 4,430 1,520 1,560 2,990 
Full SampleAny PreschoolCenter-Based PreschoolState-Funded PreschoolHead StartNo Formal Preschool
Family income       
$5,001 to $10,000 0.036 0.017 0.014 0.026 0.080 0.048 
$10,001 to $15,000 0.058 0.029 0.020 0.052 0.112 0.085 
$15,001 to $20,000 0.058 0.031 0.023 0.054 0.116 0.079 
$20,001 to $25,000 0.078 0.044 0.033 0.075 0.146 0.106 
$25,001 to $30,000 0.049 0.039 0.030 0.062 0.074 0.056 
$30,001 to $35,000 0.049 0.041 0.034 0.059 0.062 0.057 
$35,001 to $40,000 0.047 0.043 0.035 0.065 0.047 0.055 
$40,001 to $45,000 0.034 0.028 0.023 0.043 0.036 0.042 
$45,001 to $50,000 0.037 0.036 0.032 0.045 0.035 0.041 
$50,001 to $55,000 0.034 0.035 0.033 0.038 0.029 0.035 
$55,001 to $60,000 0.032 0.034 0.032 0.040 0.015 0.037 
$60,001 to $65,000 0.034 0.036 0.036 0.036 0.024 0.036 
$65,001 to $70,000 0.033 0.039 0.040 0.034 0.019 0.031 
$70,001 to $75,000 0.041 0.048 0.051 0.042 0.028 0.032 
$75,001 to $100,000 0.138 0.179 0.192 0.143 0.056 0.101 
$100,001 to $200,000 0.168 0.242 0.283 0.131 0.048 0.090 
$200,001 or more 0.044 0.063 0.077 0.025 0.013 0.025 
Primary parent employed full-time 0.418 0.469 0.473 0.457 0.410 0.325 
Primary parent employed part-time 0.210 0.226 0.236 0.202 0.194 0.186 
Secondary parent employed full-time 0.757 0.825 0.848 0.763 0.609 0.705 
Secondary parent employed part-time 0.075 0.061 0.057 0.072 0.101 0.087 
Child is female 0.485 0.482 0.489 0.465 0.474 0.497 
Primary parent education level       
9th—12th grade 0.072 0.037 0.021 0.078 0.100 0.124 
High school diploma or equivalent 0.200 0.133 0.105 0.205 0.327 0.261 
Vocational technical program 0.057 0.048 0.042 0.065 0.063 0.070 
Some college 0.272 0.271 0.258 0.305 0.314 0.253 
Bachelor's degree 0.219 0.296 0.332 0.200 0.073 0.147 
Some graduate/professional school 0.020 0.026 0.027 0.021 0.007 0.016 
Master's degree or higher 0.121 0.177 0.207 0.097 0.041 0.055 
Second parent education level       
9th—12th grade 0.085 0.043 0.028 0.084 0.166 0.122 
High school diploma or equivalent 0.289 0.228 0.188 0.333 0.411 0.342 
Vocational technical program 0.051 0.053 0.049 0.063 0.050 0.048 
Some college 0.213 0.223 0.223 0.222 0.182 0.211 
Bachelor's degree 0.174 0.236 0.276 0.130 0.074 0.108 
Some graduate/professional school 0.013 0.018 0.019 0.015 0.000 0.009 
Master's degree or higher 0.126 0.177 0.206 0.100 0.040 0.075 
Child weight (pounds) 47.040 46.860 46.430 48.000 47.900 46.930 
 (0.150) (0.180) (0.183) (0.289) (0.343) (0.244) 
Child height (inches) 44.780 44.830 44.830 44.810 44.750 44.690 
 (0.040) (0.042) (0.051) (0.066) (0.088) (0.067) 
Black 0.122 0.083 0.068 0.122 0.264 0.122 
Hispanic 0.215 0.146 0.110 0.242 0.310 0.298 
Asian 0.036 0.042 0.048 0.027 0.023 0.031 
Hawaiian 0.003 0.001 0.002 0.000 0.003 0.005 
Native American 0.008 0.007 0.003 0.018 0.014 0.007 
Two or more races 0.042 0.045 0.046 0.043 0.036 0.038 
Non-English language used at home 0.225 0.159 0.131 0.235 0.300 0.310 
Mother or child participated in WIC 0.483 0.327 0.246 0.541 0.821 0.602 
Number of siblings 1.479 1.376 1.366 1.403 1.514 1.657 
 (0.024) (0.024) (0.028) (0.037) (0.037) (0.037) 
Two-parent household 0.716 0.787 0.819 0.702 0.491 0.698 
One parent and one other adult 0.065 0.053 0.044 0.077 0.101 0.070 
Other guardians 0.021 0.015 0.011 0.026 0.040 0.023 
Parental expectations for child       
Graduate from high school 0.043 0.028 0.021 0.048 0.072 0.057 
Attend vocational or technical school 0.023 0.019 0.017 0.027 0.031 0.024 
Attend two or more years of college 0.117 0.097 0.083 0.134 0.164 0.130 
Finish four-year college 0.480 0.528 0.552 0.462 0.366 0.450 
Earn a master's degree 0.166 0.182 0.193 0.154 0.148 0.143 
Earn a doctorate 0.170 0.144 0.133 0.175 0.217 0.193 
Important child counts (1—5, essential to not important) 2.031 2.045 2.057 2.014 1.967 2.036 
 (0.015) (0.015) (0.017) (0.026) (0.023) (0.024) 
Important child shares (1—5, essential to not important) 1.632 1.590 1.580 1.616 1.693 1.680 
 (0.010) (0.012) (0.012) (0.021) (0.016) (0.015) 
Important child uses pencil (1—5, essential to not important) 1.868 1.837 1.838 1.835 1.899 1.911 
 (0.012) (0.015) (0.016) (0.029) (0.019) (0.016) 
Important child pays attention (1—5, essential to not important) 1.859 1.869 1.891 1.810 1.837 1.849 
 (0.012) (0.016) (0.016) (0.023) (0.020) (0.014) 
Important child knows letters (1—5, essential to not important) 1.902 1.889 1.897 1.868 1.887 1.935 
 (0.016) (0.019) (0.020) (0.029) (0.022) (0.018) 
Frequency of activities (1—4, not at all to every day)       
Sing 3.142 3.140 3.137 3.148 3.212 3.109 
 (0.013) (0.015) (0.018) (0.023) (0.027) (0.018) 
Art 2.779 2.772 2.775 2.763 2.780 2.792 
 (0.012) (0.015) (0.016) (0.026) (0.024) (0.017) 
Chores 3.275 3.275 3.276 3.271 3.300 3.261 
 (0.017) (0.017) (0.019) (0.027) (0.032) (0.032) 
Games 2.872 2.874 2.892 2.828 2.864 2.872 
 (0.011) (0.012) (0.013) (0.019) (0.023) (0.022) 
Talk about nature 2.314 2.333 2.342 2.307 2.302 2.284 
 (0.019) (0.023) (0.024) (0.029) (0.032) (0.026) 
Build things 2.476 2.489 2.502 2.454 2.430 2.477 
 (0.013) (0.015) (0.016) (0.031) (0.029) (0.024) 
Play sports 2.811 2.801 2.805 2.791 2.837 2.816 
 (0.012) (0.013) (0.014) (0.026) (0.028) (0.020) 
Number of books 90.770 107.500 114.100 89.710 62.280 73.820 
 (2.720) (3.103) (3.499) (3.996) (3.627) (3.483) 
Frequency use CD player (1—6, never to daily) 5.464 5.472 5.482 5.445 5.392 5.488 
 (0.026) (0.031) (0.035) (0.055) (0.044) (0.033) 
Read books to child (1—4, not at all to every day) 3.392 3.477 3.517 3.370 3.274 3.292 
 (0.018) (0.014) (0.015) (0.022) (0.024) (0.029) 
Read picture books (1—4, not at all to every day) 3.318 3.383 3.420 3.285 3.198 3.256 
 (0.016) (0.015) (0.015) (0.024) (0.029) (0.028) 
Attend PTA/PTO meetings 0.365 0.383 0.387 0.373 0.347 0.339 
Attended parent advisory group 0.125 0.124 0.123 0.128 0.131 0.124 
Volunteered at school 0.595 0.687 0.730 0.571 0.447 0.497 
 (0.013) (0.011) (0.012) (0.019) (0.017) (0.018) 
Participated in fundraising 0.690 0.742 0.760 0.695 0.610 0.634 
 (0.008) (0.010) (0.010) (0.020) (0.015) (0.013) 
Parent depression scale (1—4) 1.372 1.336 1.326 1.362 1.459 1.395 
 (0.007) (0.006) (0.007) (0.013) (0.012) (0.012) 
Parent not stressed scale (1—4) 3.061 3.057 3.058 3.054 3.062 3.068 
 (0.010) (0.010) (0.011) (0.022) (0.020) (0.018) 
Child spanked in last week 0.165 0.138 0.126 0.172 0.225 0.184 
Eat dinner together (no. days per week) 5.814 5.803 5.791 5.836 5.809 5.837 
 (0.027) (0.037) (0.042) (0.048) (0.043) (0.034) 
Eat dinner at regular time (no. days per week) 5.495 5.523 5.548 5.456 5.486 5.444 
 (0.033) (0.041) (0.045) (0.064) (0.052) (0.038) 
Child uses home computer 0.750 0.818 0.831 0.784 0.644 0.676 
Hours TV watched on weekdays 1.597 1.343 1.256 1.575 2.048 1.845 
 (0.034) (0.030) (0.029) (0.048) (0.058) (0.050) 
Visited zoo, aquarium, or farm 0.455 0.447 0.461 0.411 0.473 0.462 
Visited the library 0.601 0.630 0.654 0.565 0.580 0.559 
Visited art, museum, or historical site 0.350 0.381 0.400 0.331 0.324 0.306 
Attended play, concert, or show 0.413 0.445 0.457 0.415 0.377 0.369 
Dance lessons 0.190 0.243 0.270 0.171 0.108 0.132 
Organized athletic activities 0.533 0.650 0.692 0.536 0.386 0.388 
Clubs or recreation programs 0.130 0.159 0.167 0.137 0.089 0.095 
Music lessons 0.099 0.118 0.132 0.081 0.071 0.077 
Drama classes 0.023 0.029 0.031 0.022 0.018 0.015 
Art classes or lessons 0.089 0.105 0.111 0.090 0.073 0.068 
Performing arts programs 0.159 0.179 0.191 0.147 0.146 0.127 
Craft classes or lessons 0.114 0.129 0.133 0.117 0.092 0.096 
Neighborhood quality scale (1—3) 2.780 2.825 2.846 2.768 2.686 2.744 
 (0.010) (0.008) (0.009) (0.016) (0.015) (0.015) 
N 10,500 5,950 4,430 1,520 1,560 2,990 
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