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Table A.2.
Coefficients and Standard Errors from Regressions Predicting Spring of Kindergarten Standardized Science Achievement and Fall of Kindergarten Teacher Ratings of Science Ability from Preschool Participation Interacted with Student Race
Spring of Kindergarten Science Achievement (standardized) (1)Sense (2)Explain (3)Classify (4)Predict (5)Communicate (6)Physical Science (7)Life Science (8)Earth/Space Science (9)Composite (10)
Preschool (center-based or 3.21e—05 0.0681 0.0759 0.0889+ 0.0681 0.0796 0.0377 0.0712 0.0728 0.136* 
state-sponsored) (0.0337) (0.0419) (0.0536) (0.0492) (0.0492) (0.0559) (0.0495) (0.0451) (0.0616) (0.0623) 
Preschool*Black 0.137+ 0.0601 0.0962 0.0710 0.0479 0.0298 0.121 −0.00392 0.0680 0.0552 
 (0.0811) (0.0971) (0.107) (0.111) (0.108) (0.115) (0.0940) (0.0945) (0.115) (0.120) 
Preschool*Hispanic −0.0422 0.0220 −0.0222 −0.0630 −0.0244 0.00752 0.0399 0.0334 0.0138 −0.0348 
 (0.0657) (0.0723) (0.0846) (0.0816) (0.0815) (0.0842) (0.0751) (0.0734) (0.0953) (0.0947) 
Preschool*Asian −0.0698 −0.0199 −0.140 0.00956 −0.195 −0.113 −0.0286 0.0571 −0.157 −0.152 
 (0.116) (0.133) (0.137) (0.146) (0.135) (0.149) (0.146) (0.123) (0.183) (0.183) 
Black −0.439** −0.249** −0.282** −0.181* −0.194* −0.184* −0.203** −0.221** −0.198* −0.176+ 
 (0.0700) (0.0775) (0.0899) (0.0893) (0.0812) (0.0832) (0.0744) (0.0763) (0.0935) (0.0948) 
Hispanic −0.153** −0.176** −0.200* −0.104 −0.156* −0.195* −0.172* −0.136* −0.183+ −0.119 
 (0.0573) (0.0672) (0.0777) (0.0764) (0.0747) (0.0811) (0.0708) (0.0673) (0.0932) (0.0936) 
Asian −0.0928 0.0681 0.175 0.0561 0.152 0.149 0.0272 0.0137 0.134 0.209 
 (0.104) (0.117) (0.117) (0.130) (0.114) (0.130) (0.130) (0.111) (0.162) (0.165) 
Income controls 
Child, family, and contextual controls 
Classroom fixed effects 
Observations 10,500 7,500 6,490 6,050 6,320 5,960 6,510 6,770 4,270 3,390 
Spring of Kindergarten Science Achievement (standardized) (1)Sense (2)Explain (3)Classify (4)Predict (5)Communicate (6)Physical Science (7)Life Science (8)Earth/Space Science (9)Composite (10)
Preschool (center-based or 3.21e—05 0.0681 0.0759 0.0889+ 0.0681 0.0796 0.0377 0.0712 0.0728 0.136* 
state-sponsored) (0.0337) (0.0419) (0.0536) (0.0492) (0.0492) (0.0559) (0.0495) (0.0451) (0.0616) (0.0623) 
Preschool*Black 0.137+ 0.0601 0.0962 0.0710 0.0479 0.0298 0.121 −0.00392 0.0680 0.0552 
 (0.0811) (0.0971) (0.107) (0.111) (0.108) (0.115) (0.0940) (0.0945) (0.115) (0.120) 
Preschool*Hispanic −0.0422 0.0220 −0.0222 −0.0630 −0.0244 0.00752 0.0399 0.0334 0.0138 −0.0348 
 (0.0657) (0.0723) (0.0846) (0.0816) (0.0815) (0.0842) (0.0751) (0.0734) (0.0953) (0.0947) 
Preschool*Asian −0.0698 −0.0199 −0.140 0.00956 −0.195 −0.113 −0.0286 0.0571 −0.157 −0.152 
 (0.116) (0.133) (0.137) (0.146) (0.135) (0.149) (0.146) (0.123) (0.183) (0.183) 
Black −0.439** −0.249** −0.282** −0.181* −0.194* −0.184* −0.203** −0.221** −0.198* −0.176+ 
 (0.0700) (0.0775) (0.0899) (0.0893) (0.0812) (0.0832) (0.0744) (0.0763) (0.0935) (0.0948) 
Hispanic −0.153** −0.176** −0.200* −0.104 −0.156* −0.195* −0.172* −0.136* −0.183+ −0.119 
 (0.0573) (0.0672) (0.0777) (0.0764) (0.0747) (0.0811) (0.0708) (0.0673) (0.0932) (0.0936) 
Asian −0.0928 0.0681 0.175 0.0561 0.152 0.149 0.0272 0.0137 0.134 0.209 
 (0.104) (0.117) (0.117) (0.130) (0.114) (0.130) (0.130) (0.111) (0.162) (0.165) 
Income controls 
Child, family, and contextual controls 
Classroom fixed effects 
Observations 10,500 7,500 6,490 6,050 6,320 5,960 6,510 6,770 4,270 3,390 

Notes: Robust standard errors in parentheses. All estimates account for the complex survey design of Early Childhood Longitudinal Study through the use of survey setting and weighting. Sample sizes vary across this table as teachers had the option of not answering the question and instead noting they had not had the opportunity to observe the skill. Models include binary indicators of race and interactions with preschool for all racial groups. All interaction terms are interpretable compared with the coefficient on center-based preschool for white students.

**p < 0.01; *p < 0.05; +p < 0.1.

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